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Guide to Units and Abbreviations




Table of Contents

International System of Units

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Sunday, 17 July 2011 22:28

International System of Units

The International System of Units is a decimal system of weights and measures which is based on and extends the metric system. It is abbreviated as SI in all languages.

SI includes seven basic units (see table 1). The metre, defined to be 1,650,763.73 wavelengths in vacuum of the red-orange line of the krypton-86 spectrum, is the SI unit for length. The kilogram, which is approximately 2.2 pounds avoirdupois and equals 1,000 grams (as defined by the platinum-iridium prototype kilogram held by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sèvres, France), is the SI unit for mass. It is the sole base unit that remains defined by an artefact. It is also the only SI unit with a prefix as part of its name and symbol. The second, or the duration of 9,192,631,770 cycles of the radiation corresponding to a specified transition of the caesium-133 atom, is the SI unit for time. The ampere is the SI unit for electric current. It is the constant current produced by one volt which, when maintained in two parallel conductors separated by one metre in vacuum, generates an electromagnetic force of 2 x 10-7 N m-1. The kelvin, which is equal to 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature at the triple point of water, is the SI unit for thermodynamic temperature. The kelvin’s magnitude equals that of the degree Celsius; however, a temperature expressed in degrees Celsius is the numerical equivalent of the temperature in kelvins less 273.15. The mole is the SI unit for amount of substance; it contains as many elementary units of substance as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon-12. Elementary units must be specified, as they may be atoms, electrons, ions, molecules, radicals, etc. The candela is the SI unit for luminous intensity. It equals the luminous intensity of the black-body radiation, in the perpendicular direction, from an area of 1/600,000 square metres at platinum’s freezing temperature (2,042 kelvins) under 101,325 pascals of pressure, which approximates the intensity of a single paraffin candle.

Table 1. SI base units


SI unit name











Electric current



Thermodynamic temperature



Amount of substance



Luminous intensity



1 "Weight” is often used to mean “mass”.
2 The name “degree kelvin” and the symbol “degK” were declared obsolete
at a 1967 international conference.

SI also includes two supplementary units (see table 2). Radian and steradian are the dimensionless units for the dimensionless quantities plane angle and solid angle, respectively. Units for other quantities are derived from the seven basic and two supplementary units.

Table 2. SI supplementary units


SI unit name


Expression in terms of SI base units

Plane angle



m·m 1 =1

Solid angle



m2 ·m 2 =1

Table 3 lists selected SI derived units expressed in terms of base units. Derived units with special names and symbols are listed in table 4. These may be used to express other derived units (see table 5). The two supplementary units may also be used to express derived units (see table 6).

The 16 prefixes used to create multiples and submultiples of SI units are listed in table 7. Since multiple prefixes cannot be used, these prefixes are used with gram (g), but not with kilogram (kg).

A number of units that are not part of SI are widely used, especially in the United States. Those which are considered acceptable for use with SI in the US are listed in table 8. A conversion table for SI units is provided in table 9.

Table 3. Selected SI derived units expressed in terms of base units


SI unit name



Square metre



Cubic metre


Speed, velocity

Metre per second



Metre per second squared


Wave number

Reciprocal metre

m 1

Density, mass density

Kilogram per cubic metre


Specific volume

Cubic metre per kilogram


Current density

Ampere per square metre


Magnetic field strength

Ampere per metre


Concentration (of amount of substance)

mole per cubic metre



Candela per square metre



Table 4. SI derived units with special names


SI unit name


Expression in terms
of other units




s 1





Pressure, stress




Energy, work, quantity of heat




Power, radiant flux




Electric charge, quantity of electricity




Electric potential, potential difference, electromotive force








Electric resistance




Electric conductance




Magnetic flux




Magnetic flux density








Celsius temperature1

Degree Celsius



Luminous flux




Activity (of a radionuclide)



s 1

Absorbed dose, specific energy imparted, kerma, absorbed dose index




Dose equivalent, dose equivalent index




1 In addition to the thermodynamic temperature (T) expressed in kelvins (see table 105.1), Celsius
temperature (t) is also used and is defined by the equation t = T – T0 where T0 = 273.15 K by
definition. The unit “degree Celsius”, which is equal to the unit “kelvin”, is used to express Celsius
temperature.  Here, the term “degree Celsius” is a special name substituted for “kelvin”.
However, a difference or interval of Celsius temperature can be expressed in either kelvins
or degrees Celsius.

Table 5. Examples of SI derived units expressed with special names


SI unit name


Dynamic viscosity

Pascal second


Moment of force

Newton metre


Surface tension

Newton per metre


Heat flux density, irradiance

Watt per square metre


Heat capacity, entropy

Joule per kelvin


Specific heat capacity, specific entropy

Joule per kilogram kelvin


Specific energy

Joule per kilogram


Thermal conductivity

Watt per metre kelvin


Energy density

Joule per cubic metre


Electric field strength

Volt per metre


Electric charge density

Coulomb per cubic metre


Electric flux density

Coulomb per square metre



Farad per metre



Henry per metre


Molar energy

Joule per metre


Molar entropy, molar heat capacity

Joule per mole kelvin


Exposure (x and gamma rays)

Coulomb per kilogram


Absorbed dose rate

Gray per second



Table 6. Examples of SI derived units formed with supplementary units


SI unit name


Angular velocity

Radian per second


Angular acceleration

Radian per second squared


Radiant intensity

Watt per steradian



Watt per square metre steradian



Table 7. SI prefixes




























10- 1



10- 2



10- 3



10- 6



10- 9



10- 12



10- 15



10- 18




Table 8. Units in use with SI



Value in SI unit

Minute (time)


1 min = 60 s



1 h = 60 min = 3,600 s



1 d = 24 h = 86,400 s

Degree (angle)

1 = (pi/180) rad

Minute (angle)

1  = (1/60) = (pi/10,800) rad

Second (angle)

1  = (1/60) = (pi/648,000) rad



1 l = 1 dm3 = 10 3 m3



1 t = 103 kg

Hectare (land area)


1 ha = 1 hm2 = 104 m2



1 eV = 1.602 18 x 10 19 J

Unified atomic mass unit3


1 u = 1.660 54 x 10 27 kg

1 Both “l” and “L” are accepted as symbols for litre.
2 In some countries, such as the United States, “metric ton” is used instead of “tonne”.
3 The values of these units in SI units are not known exactly; the values must be obtained
through experiment. The electronvolt is the kinetic energy acquired by an electron passing
through a potential difference of 1 volt in a vacuum.  The unified atomic mass unit equals 1/12 of
the mass of the atom of the nuclide 12C.

 Table 9. Conversion of non-SI units to SI units



Multiply by/divide by

Inch (in)


2.54 x 10 2

Feet (ft)



Square inch (in2 )


6.4516 x 10 4

Square foot (ft2 )


9.2903 x 10 2

Cubic inch (in3 )


1.638 71 x 10 5

Cubic foot (ft3 )


2.831 68 x 10 2

Litre (l)


10 3

Gallon (gal)


4.546 09 x 10 3

Mile/hour (mi hr 1 )

m s 1

0.477 04

Kilometre/hour (km hr 1 )

m s 1

0.277 78

Pound (lb)


0.453 592

Gram/cm3 (g cm 3 )

kg m 3



kg m 3

2.767 99 x 104




Atmosphere (atm)


1.013 25 x 105

Horsepower (hp)





10 7

Electronvolt (eV)


1.602 10 x 10 19

Kilowatt-hour (kW hr)


3.6 x 106

Calorie (cal)





10 5



9.806 65



0.138 255



4.448 22


Acknowledgement: The information in the tables is based primarily on data from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).



Sunday, 17 July 2011 22:31

Abbreviations and Acronyms

The following abbreviations and acronyms are used in this Encyclopaedia, but the list is not exhaustive. Chemical abbreviations, for example, are not given here. Standard abbreviations for journal names are not listed. The international system of units of measurements and its abbreviations are outlined in a separate section of this chapter.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z


AA                   Alcoholics Anonymous

AAA                 Academics and Workers Action in Denmark

AAAS              American Association for the Advancement of Science

AAO                American Academy of Otolaryngology

AARP              American Association of Retired Persons

AAS                 Atom absorption spectroscopy

ABP                 Androgen binding protein

ABRIE             General Business Investigation and Risk Inventory and Evaluation

ABS                 Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene

AC                   Alternating current

ACE                 Angiotensin converting enzyme

ACFTU            All-China Confederation of Trade Unions

ACGIH             American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

ACHE              Acetylcholinesterase

ACOG              American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

ACS                 American Cancer Society

ACS                 American Chemical Society

ACTH              Adrenocorticotropic hormones

ACTU              Australian Council of Trade Unions

ADA                 Americans with Disabilities Act

ADH                 Anti-diuretic hormone

ADI                  Acceptable daily intake

ADR                 European Agreement Concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road

AEC                 Atomic Energy Commission (US)

AEL                 Accessible emission limits

AFA                 Association of Flight Attendants

AFB                 Acid-fast bacilli

AFFF               Aqueous film-forming foam

AFL-CIO          American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations

AFNOR            Association française de normalisation

AFSCME         American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees

AGI                  All-glass impingers

AGR                Advanced gas-cooled reactors

AHA                 American Hospital Association

AHCPR            Agency for Health Care Policy and Research

AI                    Alveolar-interstitial

AI                    Artificial insemination

AIA                  Asbestos International Association

AIA                  Aerospace Industries Association

AIChE              American Institute of Chemical Engineers

AIDS                Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

AISI                 American Iron and Steel Institute

ALA                 Aminolaevulinic acid

ALA-D              Aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase

ALARA            As low as reasonably achievable

ALASEHT        Latino-American Association of Occupational Safety and Hygiene

ALA-U              Delta-aminolaevulinic acid in urine

ALI                  Annual limits on intake

ALL                 Acute lymphocytic leukaemia

ALM                Acral lentiginous me

AM                  Amplitude modulation

AMD                Occupational Medical Service

AML                Acute myelocytic leukaemia

AMS                Acute mountain sickness

ANA                 Antinuclear antibodies

ANFO              Ammonium nitrate fuel oil

ANLL               Acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia

ANSI                American National Standards Institute

AOEC              Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics

APA                 American Psychiatric Association

APA                 American Psychological Association

APEC              Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation

APELL             Awareness and preparedness for emergencies at local level

APF                 Association des paralysés de France

APF                 Assigned protection factor

APHA              American Public Health Association

APHIS             Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

API                  American Petroleum Institute

APPR              Army package power reactor

APR                 Accident prevention regulation

ARDS              Acute respiratory distress syndrome

ARET              Accelerated Reduction/ Elimination of Toxics

AS                   Australian Standard

ASA                 American Society of Anesthetists

ASEAN            Association of Southeast Asian Nations

ASHRAE          American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers

ASL                 Angiosarcoma of the liver

ASP                 Amnesic shellfish poisoning

ASSE              American Society of Safety Engineers

ASSTAS          Association pour la santé et la sécurité du travail, secteur affaires sociales

AST                 Above-ground storage tankage

ASTM              American Society for Testing and Materials

ATA                 Alaska Trappers Association

ATBC              Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene

ATM                Automatic teller machines

ATS                 American Thoracic Society

ATSDR            Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

ATV                 All-terrain vehicle

AUC                 Area under the curve

AUDIT             Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test

AWT                Computer’s feedback on the average time workers take processing each customer call


BACT              Best available control technology

BAD                 Occupational Medical Service of the Berufsgenossenschaften

BAEP              Brainstem auditory potentials

BAL                 British anti-Lewisite

BAL                 Bronchoalveolar lavage

BAT                 Biological tolerance value

BAU                 German federal safety institute

BBP                 Bloodborne pathogens

BC                   Before Christ

BCF                 Bulked continuous filament

BCG                Bacille of Calmette and Guérin

BEI                  Biological exposure index

BEIR                Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

BG                   The German Berufsgenossenschaften

BGMG             Berufsgenossenschaften Measuring System Hazardous Substances

BGW                Berufsgenossenschaft für Gesundheitsdienst und Wohlfahrtspflege

BIA                  Berufsgenossenschaften Association and their Institute for Occupational Safety

BL                   Biosafety Level

BLDSC            British Library Document Supply Centre

BLEVE            Boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion

BLS                 Bureau of Labor Statistics (US)

BM                  Behaviour modification

BMD                Benchmark dose

BMI                 Body mass index

BMP                Best Management Practice

BMRC              British Medical Research Council

BNA                 Bureau of National Affairs (US)

BOD                Biochemical oxygen demand

BOF                 Basic oxygen furnace

BP                   British Petroleum

BPPV              Benign positional paroxysmal vertigo

BPR                 Business process reengineering

BRF                 Basic risk factors

BRI                  Building-related illness

BRS                 Bortner Rating Scale

BS                   British Standard

BSE                 Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

BSI                  British Standards Institute

BTPS              Body temperature and ambient pressure

BUPA              British United Provident Association

BWR                Boiling water reactor


CAD                 Computer-aided design

CAL                 Chronic airflow limitation

CAM                Continuous air monitors

CAM                Chorioallantoic membrane

CAM                Computer-aided manufacturing

CAMAC           Computer Assisted Measurement and Control Association

CAMP              Cyclical adenosinm onophosphate

CAT                 Computerized axial tomography

CATI                Computer-aided telephone interview

CBA                 Cost benefit analysis

CBC                 Complete blood count

CBV                 Central blood volume

CC                   Closing capacity

CCHF               Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever

CCITT             Comité consultatif international des organisations téléphoniques et télégraphiques

CCOHS            Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety

CCPS              Center for Chemical Process Safety

CD                   Committee draft

CD-ROM          Compact Disc- Read Only Memory

CDC                 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US)

CDT                 Cumulative trauma disorders

CE                   European Community

CEA                 Cost effectiveness analysis

CEC                 Commission of European Communities

CEDAW           United Nations Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women in All Its Forms

CEFIC              European Council of Chemical Manufacturers’ Federations

CEI                  Cumulative exposure index

CEIC                Canada Employment and Immigration Commission

CEN                 European Committee for Standardization

CENELEC        Comité européen de normalisation électrotechnique

CENTC            European Community Standard

CEO                Chief executive officer

CEPA              Canadian Environmental Protection Act

CERN              European Organization for Nuclear Research

CET                 Corrected Effective Temperature

CETG              United Nations Committee of Experts on Transport of Dangerous Goods

CF                   Complement fixation

CFR                 Case-fatality rate

CFRT               Converted floating roof tank

CFST               Federal Commission of Coordination

CFU                 Colony-forming units

CHD                 Coronary heart disease

CI                    Confidence interval

CIBC                International Council of Building Research

CIBSE             Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers

CIE                  Commission internationale de l’éclairage

CIM                 Computer-integrated manufacturing

CIMAS             International Conference of Sickness Insurance Funds and Mutual Benefit Societies

CIOMS            Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences

CIP                  Cleaning-in-place

CIRA                International Committee for the Reglementation of Lifts

CIS                  International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre

CISMID            Centro Peruano Japonés de Investigaciones Sísmicas y Mitigación de Desastres

CIVD                Cold-induced vasodilatation

CJD                 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

CLL                 Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

CMA                Cost minimization analysis

CMA                Chemical Manufacturers Association

CMEA              Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

CML                Chronic myelocytic leukaemia

CMS                Chronic mountain sickness

CNA                 Caisse nationale suisse d’assurance en cas d’accidents

CNAM              Conservatoire national des arts et métiers

CNC                 Computer numeric control

CNC                 Computer-assisted numerical control system

CNC                 Computer numerical controlled

CNG                Compressed natural gas

CNS                 Central nervous system

CNSLD            Chronic non-specific lung disease

COA                Canada-Ontario Agreement

COD                Chemical oxygen demand

COHSE            Confederation of Health Service Employees

COLREG         Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea

COPD              Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

COPRO           Coproporphyrin

COPRO-U        Coproporphyrin in urine

CORD              Center for Occupational Research and Development

COSH              Committees on Occupational Safety and Health

COTOREP       Commission technique d’orientation et de réinsertion professionnelle

CPAF               Cost plus award fee and production

CPC                 Chemical-protective clothing

CPDB              Carcinogen potency database

CPFF               Cost plus fixed fee

CPIAS             Permanent International Committee on Social Insurance

CPR                 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CPS                 Cancer Prevention Study

CPSC              Consumer Product Safety Commission

CPTED            Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design

CPU                 Central processing unit

CQI                  Continuous quality improvement

CRT                 Cathode ray tub

CRU                 Customer replaceable units

CSCL               Chemical Substances Control Law

CSD                 Commission on Sustainable Development

CSF                 Cerebrospinal fluid

CSHES            Centres for State Hygienic and Epidemiological Supervision

CSO                Canadian Standards Organization

CT                   Computed tomography

CTD                 Cumulative trauma disorders

CTM                Mexican Confederation of Workers

CTS                 Carpal tunnel syndrome

CUA                 Cost utility analysis

CV                   Constant volume

CVD                 Cardiovascular diseases

CVD                 Chemical vapour deposition

CVI                  Chemical vapour infiltration

CWP                Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis


DALY               Disability adjusted life year

DAST              Drug Abuse Screening Test

DBMS              Database management system

DBP                 Diastolic blood pressure

DC                   Direct current

DF                   Defence

DFG                 Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft

DG                   Directorate General

DHC                 Double-hand controls

DI                    De-ionized

DIC                  Disseminated intra-vascular coagulation

DIESAT           Network of Science Shops in the Netherlands

DIN                  German Institute for Normalization

DIP                  Dual-in-line package

DIPF                Diffuse and progressive interstitial fibrosis

DIS                  Draft International Standard

DISTAT           United Nations Disability Statistics Compendium

DKFZ               German Cancer Research Center

DLCO              Decreased carbon monoxide diffusing capacity

DLE                 Duration-limited exposures

DLPW              Department of Labour Protection and Welfare

DNA                 Deoxyribonucleic acid

DOE                Department of Energy (US)

DOK-MEGA     Documentation for Measurement Data on Hazardous Substances in the Workplace (German)

DOL                 Department of Labor (US)

DOT                Directly observed therapy

DOV                Days from ovulation

DRG                Diagnosis-related grouping

DS                   Data sheet

DSM                Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (APA)

DSP                 Diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning


E/E/PE            Electro-mechanical, electronic and programmable electronic

EA                   Environmental assessment

EAA                 Extrinsic allergic alveolitis

EAEC              European Atomic Energy Community

EAF                 Electric arc furnace

EAP                 Employee assistance programme

EC                   Executive Committee

EC50                Effective concentration for 50%

ECA                 Epidemiological Catchment Area

ECCS              Emergency core cooling system

ECD                 European Commission Directive

ECD                 Electron capture detector

ECETOC         European Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology Research Centre

ECG                Electrocardiogram

ECLAC            Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

ECO                Pan-American Centre for Human Ecology and Health

ECOSOC         Economic and Social Council

ECSC              European Coal and Steel Community Treaty

ECTU              European Confederation of Trade Unions

ECU                 European Social Charter

ECVAM           European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods

EDXA              Energy dispersive x-ray analysis

EEC                 European Economic Commission

EEC                 European Economic Community

EEC                 European Economic Council

EEG                Electroencephalogram

EEO                Equal employment opportunity

EEOC              Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (US)

EER                 Equilibrium equivalent of radon

EFQM              European Foundation for Quality Management

EFRT               External floating roof tanks

EFTA               European Free Trade Association

EGF                 Epidermal growth factor

EHC                 Environmental Health Criteria

EHS                 Environmental health and safety

EIA                  Environmental impact assessment

EIS                  Environmental impact statement

EKG                (German) Electrocardiogram

EL                   Exposure limits

ELF                 Extremely low frequency

ELISA              Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EM                  Electromagnetic

EMC                Electromagnetic compatibility

EMF                Electromagnetic field

EMG                Electromyography

EMI                 Electromagnetic interference

EMS                Environmental management system

EMT                Emergency medical technicians

EN                   European Norms (Standard)

ENG                Electroneurography

EOG                Electro-oculographic

EP                   Evoked potentials

EPA                 Environmental Protection Agency (US)

EPM                Electronic performance monitoring

EPRI                Electric Power Research Institute

ER                   Endoplasmic reticulum

ERC                 Educational Resource Program

EREMP           Emergency Radiological Environmental Monitoring Programme

ERG                Eastern Research Group

ERIC                Educational Resources Information Center

ES                   Emergency stop

ESA-IRS          European Space Agency’s Information Retrieval System

ESCAP            Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

ESD                 Emergency shut-down valves

ET                   Environmental technology

ET                   Effective temperature

ETS                 Environmental tobacco smoke

ETSI                European Telecommunication Standards Institute

EU                   European Union

EUC                 Equipment under control


FAO                 Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations

FBR                 Fast breeder reactors

FCAW              Flux core arc welding

FCC                 Fluid catalytic cracking

FCI                  Freezing cold injuries

FDIS                Final Draft International Standard

FDP                 Fibrin degradation products

FEMA              Federal Emergency Management Agency (US)

FEP                 Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin

FEV1               Forced expiratory volume in 1 second

FFP                 Firm fixed price

FFPAF             Firm fixed price award fee

FFR                 Fume formation rate

FGR                 Fume generation rate

FID                  Flame ionization detector

FIET                International Federation of Commercial, Clerical and Technical Employees

FIFRA              Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (US)

FINNIDA          Finnish International Development Agency

FM                   Frequency modulation

FMEA              Failure mode and effect analysis

FO                   Objective fit

FOPS              Falling-object protective structures

FPA                 Fire Protection Association

FPHS               Farmers’ Preventive Health Service

FRC                 Functional residual capacity

FREM              Fire risk evaluation method

FRG                 Federal Republic of Germany

FRPP               Flame-resistant polypropylene

FRS                 Call restraint system

FS                   Subjective fit

FSH                 Follicle stimulating hormone

FTAS               Framingham Type A Scale

FTP                 File transfer protocols

FVC                 Forced vital capacity


GAG                Glycosaminoglycan

GATT              General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GDP                Gross domestic product

GDR                German Democratic Republic

GEENET         Global Environmental Epidemiology Network

GEMS             Generic error modelling system

GEMS/Food    Joint UNEP/FAO/WHO Food Contamination Monitoring Programme

GFI                  Ground fault interrupter

GFT                 General failure types

GHG                Greenhouse gases

GIFAP             International Group of National Associations of Agrochemical Manufacturers

GISBAU           Gefahrstoff-Informationssystem der Berufsgenossenschaften der Bauwirtschaft

GIT                  Gastrointestinal tract

GLP                 Good laboratory practice

GLR                 Gas cooled reactors

GLSP              Good large-scale practice

GLWQA           Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement

G-M                 Geiger-Mueller

GC                   Gas chromatography

GMAW             Gas metal arc welding

GMO               Genetically manipulated organism

GMP                Good manufacturing practice

GNP                Gross national product

GOST              State standards on occupational health and safety in the Russian Federation

GRP                Glass-reinforced plastics

GTAW             Gas tungsten arc welding


HAP                 Hazardous air pollutants

HASS              Home Accident Surveillance System

HAV                 Hand-arm vibration

HAV                 Hepatitis A virus

HAVS              Hand-arm vibration syndrome

HAZMAT         Hazardous materials

HAZOP            Hazard and operability studies

HBIG               Hepatitis B immune globulin

HBsAg             Hepatitis B surface antigen

HBV                 Hepatitis B virus

HCC                 Hepatocellular carcinoma

HCG                Human chorionic gonadotrophins

HCIM               Human and computer-integrated manufacturing

HCL                 Health care leader

HCP                 Hearing conservation programmes

HCS                 Hazard Communication Standard

HCT                 Health care trainers

HCV                 Hepatitis C virus

HCW                Health care worker

HD                   Hodgkin’s disease

HDL                 High density lipoproteins

HDV                 Hepatitis D virus

HEG                Homogeneous exposure groups

HEPA              High efficiency particulate air filters

HEPA              High-efficiency particulate attenuator

HEPS              Health and Epidemic Prevention Station

HFRS               Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

HG                   Highest grade

HHS                 Hypothenar hammer syndrome

HID                  High-intensity discharge

HIP                  Hazard identification process

HIP                  Hot isostatic pressing

HiPox              High-pressure oxidation

HIV                  Human-immunodeficiency virus

HMO                Health maintenance organization

HMTRI             Hazardous Materials Training and Research Institute

HP                   Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

HPD                 Hearing protection devices

HPLC               High-performance liquid chromatography

HPP                 Health promotion and prevention

HPP                 Health protection and promotion

HPS                 Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

HR                   Heart rate

HR                   Highly recommended

HRA                 Health risk appraisal

HRCT              High resolution computer tomography

HRDI                Human Resources Development Institute

HRGC              High-resolution capillary columns

HRM                Human resources management

HRT                 Hormone replacement therapy

HSDIP             Hygienic standards for design of industrial premises

HSE                 Health and Safety Executive (UK)

HSEES            Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance

HSI                  Heat Stress Index

HV                   High voltage

HVAC              Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning

HVBG              Central Federation of the Berufsgenossenschaften

HVL                 Half-value layer

HVLP               High volume, low pressure

HVR                 Hypoxic ventilatory response

HVT                 Half-value thickness

HWE                Healthy worker effect

HY                   High yield


IAAMRH          International Association on Agricultural Medicine and Rural Health

IACRS             Inter-Agency Committee on Radiation Safety

IAEA                International Atomic Energy Association

IALI                 International Association of Labour Inspection

IAM                 International Association of Machinists

IAMAW            International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers

IAOP               International Association of Outplacement Professionals

IAQ                  Indoor air quality

IARC                International Agency for Research on Cancer

IAS                  Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine

IASC                Inter-American Safety Council

IATA                International Air Transport Association

IBC                  Institutional Biosafety Committee

IBC                  Individual bulk containers

IBE                  International Bureau for Epilepsy

IBM                 International Business Machines

IBS                  Irritable bowel syndrome

ICAO               International Civil Aviation Organization

ICC                  International Chambers of Commerce

ICC                  Intraclass correlation coefficient

ICCA                International Council of Chemical Associations

ICCVAM          Interagency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods

ICD                  International Classification of Disease

ICE                  Interleukin converting enzyme

ICEF                International Federation of Chemical, Energy and General Workers’ Union

ICEM               International Confederation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers’ Union

ICESCR           International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

ICFTU              International Confederation of Free Trade Unions

ICI                   Industrial, commercial and institutional

ICIDH               International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps

ICIE                 International Centre for Industry and the Environment

ICME               International Council on Metals and the Environment

ICN                  International Council of Nurses

ICNIRP            International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection

ICOH               International Commission on Occupational Health

ICRP                International Commission on Radiological Protection

ICSU                International Council of Scientific Union

ICTU                Irish Congress of Trade Unions

ICWU               International Chemical Workers Union

I-E                   Internal-external

IC                    Integrated circuit

ID                    Inside diameter

IDB                  Inter-American Development Bank

IDC                  Industrially developing country

IDLH                Immediately dangerous to life and health

IDNDR             United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction

IDPIS               Integrated Drug and Poison Information Service (Thailand)

IDV                  Indinavir

IEA                  International Ergonomics Association

IEC                  International Electrotechnical Commission

IEEE                Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

IES                  Illuminating Engineering Society

IFB                  Invitation for bid

IFBWW            International Federation of Building and Wood Workers

IFIESR             International Foundation for Industrial Ergonomics and Safety Research

IFRCRCS         International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

IFSG                International Fiber Safety Group

IGO                 Intergovernmental organizations

IHD                  Ischaemic heart disease

IHEA                International Hunter Education Association

IILS                 International Institute for Labour Studies

IISI                  International Iron and Steel Institute

IJC                   International Joint Commission

IJOEH              International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health

IL2                   Interleukin-2

ILC                  International Labour Conference

ILCOS             International Lamp Coding System

ILGWU             International Ladies Garment Workers Union

ILO                  International Labour Organization

ILO                  International Labour Office

IMDG               International Maritime Dangerous Goods

IMIS                Integrated Management Information System

IMO                 International Maritime Organization

IMV                 Index of median values

INES                International nuclear events scale

INH                  Isoniazid

INIRC/IRPA     International Committee for Non-Ionizing Radiation of the International Radiation Protection Association

IOCC               Inter-Organization Coordinating Committee

IOCU               International Organization of Consumers Unions

IOE                  International Employers Organization

IOHA               International Occupational Hygiene Association

IOM                 Institute of Occupational Medicine

IOM/CAPM      Institute of Occupational Medicine, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine

IOMC               Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals

IPAI                 International Primary Aluminum Institute

IPCC                Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPCS                International Programme on Chemical Safety

IPEC                International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

IPEET             Inter-American Partnership for Environmental Education and Training

IPM                 Integrated pest management

IPM                 Inhalable particulate mass

IPM                 Inspirable particulate mass

IQ                    Intelligence quotient

IR                    Ionizing radiation

IR                    Infrared radiation

IRB                  Institutional Review Board

IREQ               Calculated required insulation value

IRPA                International Radiation Protection Association

IRPTC             International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals

IRR                  Infrared radiation

IRSST             Institute for Occupational Health and Safety Research (Quebec, Canada)

IS                    International Standard

ISA                  International Standards Association

ISA                  Instrument Society of America

ISBN                International Standard Book Number

ISCO               International Standard Classification of Occupations

ISIC                 International Standard Industrial Classification

ISO                  International Organization for Standardization

ISRS                International Safety Rating System

ISSA                International Social Security Association

ISSA                International Safety and Security Association

ITQ                  Individual transferable quota

ITS                  Index of thermal stress

ITV                  Interactive television

IUCN                International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources-World Conservation Union

IUD                  Intrauterine contraceptive device

IUPAC             International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

IVP                  Intravenous pyelogram

IWC                 International Whaling Commission


JAS                 Jenkins Activity Survey

JECFA             Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives

JISHA              Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association

JIT                   Just-in-time production

JMA                 Japan Medical Association

JMPR              Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues

JPCG               Joint Presidents Coordinating Group

JPG                 Joint Presidents Group

JSOH               Japan Society for Occupational Health


KSA                 Knowledge, skills and abilities


LADAPT          Ligue pour l’adaptation des diminués physiques au travail

LAMP              Lakewide management plan

LAN                 Local area network

LBP                 Low-back pain

LBW                Low birth weight

LCA                 Life-cycle assessments

LCD                 Liquid crystal display

LCI                  Life-cycle inventory

LCM                Lymphocytic choriomeningitis

LD                   Linz-Donowitz

LD50               Lethal dose –50%

LDH                 Lactate dehydrogenase

LDL                 Low density lipoproteins

LEC                 Low-pressure liquid encapsulated Czochralski

LED                 Light-emitting diodes

LEL                 Lower explosive limits

LET                 Linear energy transfer

LEV                 Local exhaust ventilation

LFL                  Lower flammable limits

LH                   Luteinizing hormone

LHD                 Load-haul-dump

LI                     Lifting index

LISREL            Weight-least squares statistical analysis procedure

LIUNA              Laborers International Union of North America

LMC                Landell Mills Commodities

LMFBR            Liquid metal fast breeder reactors

LMM                Lentigo malignant melanomas

LNG                 Liquefied natural gas

LOAEL            Lowest observed adverse effect level

LOC                 Locus of control

LOEL               Lowest observable effect level

LOSC              Montego Bay Convention on the Law of the Sea

LP                   Liquid petroleum

LPE                 Liquid-phase epitaxy

LPG                 Liquefied petroleum gas

LPN                 Licensed practical nurse

LSF                 Low smoke and fire

LSF                 Low-solids flux

LTA                 Less than adequate

LTT                 Lymphocyte transformation test

LVD                 Low Voltage Directive

LWGR              Light water graphite reactors


MAC                Maximum allowable concentrations

MAIM              Merseyside Accident Information Model

MAK                Maximum workplace concentration

MALT              Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

MAP                Membership Assistance Programmes

MARPOL         London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter

MAST              Michigan Alcohol Screening Test

MAT                Mobile access towers

MBA                Master of Business Administration

MBE                Molecular-beam epitaxy

MCM               Million cubic metres

MCQ                Multiple-choice questions

MCS                Multiple chemical sensitivities

MCV                Mean corpuscular volume

MD                  Machinery Directive

MDF                Medium-density fibreboard

MDT                Multidisciplinary teams

MED                Minimal erythemal dose

MEQ                Modified essay questions

MERCOSUR   Southern Market —Mercado Común del Sur

MeV                Million electron volts

MFF                 Metal fume fever

MG                  Mean grade

MGP                Manufactured gas plant

MHC                Mental health counsellors

MHW               Ministry of Health and Welfare

MI                    Mineral insulated

MIE                 Minimal ignition energy

MIG                 Metal inert gas

MIS                 Management information system

MITI                Ministry of International Trade and Industry

ML                   Maximum levels

MLSS              Mixed liquor suspended solids

MM                  Multiple myeloma

MM                  Maintenance management

MMC               Metal-matrix composites

MMF                Man-made mineral fibres

MMH               Manual materials handling

MMPI              Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Index

MMR               Measles-mumps-rubella

MMVF             Man-made vitreous fibres

MN                  Micronuclei

MNC                Multinational corporations

MOA                Ministry of Agriculture

MOCVD           Metallorganic chemical-vapour deposition

MOIA               Ministry of Industrial Administration

MOL                Ministry of Labour

MOPH             Ministry of Public Health

MOR                Mortality odds ratio

MORT             Management Oversight and Risk Tree

MPD                Minimum premarketing set of data

MPPD              Maximum Probable Property Damage

MPS                Mononuclear phagocyte system

MR                  Magnetic resonance

MRC                Medical Research Council

MRC                Metallic replacement cartridges

MRF                Material recycling facilities

MRI                 Magnetic resonance imaging

MRL                Maximum residue levels

MS                  Mainstream smoke

MSD                Motion Sickness Dose Value

MSDS              Material safety data sheet

MSF                Manufacturing-Science-Finance

MSHA              Mine Safety and Health Administration

MSI                 Musculoskeletal injuries

MSW               Municipal solid waste

MTBF              Mean time between failures

MTBM             Mean time between maintenance

MTD                Maximum tolerated dose

MTF                Modulation transfer function

MUB                Molasses urea block

MVC                Maximal voluntary capacity

MVK                Moolgavkar-Venzon-Knudson

MVLC              Maximal voluntary lifting capacity

MVOC             Microbial volatile organic compounds

MWe                Megawatts of electric power

MWL                Mental workload

MWR               Megawatts of refrigeration

MYR                Million ringgit


NA                   Negative affectivity

NADH              Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NAEP              National Asthma Education Program

NAFTA            North American Free Trade Agreement

NAS                 National Academy of Science (US)

NASA              National Aeronautics and Space Administration (US)

NASA-TLX       NASA Task Load Index

NATO              North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NBC                 Nuclear, biological, chemical

NBR                 Non-specific bronchial responsiveness

NC                   Nutrition counsellors

NC                   Numerically controlled

NC                   Numerical control

NCHS              National Center for Health Statistics (US)

NCI                  National Cancer Institute (US)

NCODD            National Committee on Occupational Disease Diagnosis

NCODPT         National Centre for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment

NCOHR            National Centre of Occupational Health Reporting

NCRP              National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

NCTB              Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery

NCV                 Nerve conduction velocity

NDIR                Non-dispersive infrared detectors

NEETC            National Environmental Education and Training Center, Inc.

NEG                Nordic Expert Group

NEPA              National Environmental Policy Act

NES                 Neurobehavioral Evaluation System

NESC              National Electrical Safety Code

NESHAP          Aerospace National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants

NFCI                Non-freezing cold injuries

NFPA               National Fire Protection Association (US)

NGO                Non-governmental organization

NHANES          National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NHIS                National Health Interview Survey

NHL                 Non-Hodgkins lymphoma

NHS                 National Health Service

NHZ                 Nominal hazard zone

NIC                  Newly industrialized countries

NICE                National Institute for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment

NIEHS             National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences

NIH                  National Institutes of Health (US)

NIHG               National Institutes of Health Guidelines (US)

NIHL                Noise-induced hearing loss

NIMBY             Not in my back yard

NIMH               National Institute for Mental Health

NIOSH             National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US)

NiPERA           Nickel Producers Evironmental Research Association

NIPTS             Noise-induced permanent threshold shift

NIR                  Non-ionizing radiation

NK                   Natural killer [cell]

NM                  Nodular melanomas

NMR                Nuclear magnetic resonance

NMSC              Non-melanocytic skin cancers

NMWCC           National Maximum Workplace Concentration Committee

NOAEL            No observed adverse effect level

NOEL              No observable effect level

NOES              National Occupational Exposure Surveys

NP                   Nasopharyngeal

NPD                 Nitrogen and phosphorus detector

NPP                 Nuclear power plant

NPRI                National Pollutant Release Inventory

NR                   Not recommended

NR                   Noise reduction

NRC                 National Research Council (US)

NRL                 Natural rubber latex

NRPB              National Radiological Protection Board

NRR                 Noise Reduction Rating

NSAID             Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

NSC                 National Safety Council (US)

NSCLC            Non-small cell lung cancer

NSD                 National Safety Day

NSF                 National Science Foundation

NTCHS            National Technical Committee of Hygienic Standards

NTIS                National Technical Information Service (US)

NTOF              National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities

NUD                 Non-ulcer dyspepsia

NVOC              Non-volatile organic compound

NYC/TLC         New York City/Taxi and Limousine Commission


OA                   Occupational asthma

OAAAS            Occupational asthma associated with aluminium smelting

OAP                Occupationally acquired pneumonia

OARU              Occupational Accident Research Unit

OAS                Organization of American States

OATUU            Organization of African Trade Union Unity

OAU                Organization of African Unity

OBM                Organization behaviour management

OCD                Occupational cervicobrachial disorder

OCP                Organochlorine pesticides

OCR                Optical character reader

OD                   Optical densities

ODC                Occupational Disease Certification

ODIN               Organizational Service for On-going Examinations

ODM                Omni Diurnal Model

ODTS              Organic dust toxic syndrome

OECD              Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

OECD              Organization for Economic and Cultural Development

OEH                Occupational and environmental health

OEL                 Occupational exposure limits

OES                Occupational Exposure Standards

OHAS              Open hybrid automated system

OHC                Occupational health counsellors

OHC                Occupational health centres

OHI                  Occupational health institutions

OHO                Occupational health organization

OHPP              Occupational health promotion physicians

OILPOL           Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil

OMB                Office of Management and Budget

OMNI               Occupational Medicine and Nursing Information

OMVPE           Metallorganic chemical-vapour deposition

ONAC              Office des anciens combattants

OP                   Occupational health physician

OPA                Occupational disease prevention

OR                   Odds ratio

ORSE              Optimal room surveillance equipment

OSHA              Occupational Safety and Health Administration

OSTP              Office of Science and Technology Policy

OTA                Office of Technology Assessment

OTC                Over-the-counter


P&G                Proctor & Gamble

P&ID                Process and implementation diagrams

P/I                   Piping and instrumentation

PAW                Plasma-arc welding

P-E                  Person-environment

PA                   Positive affectivity

PAH                 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

PAHO              Pan-American Health Organization

PAPR              Powered air-purifying respirator

PAQ                Position analysis questionnaire

PAR                 Population attributable risk

PAR                 Parabolic aluminized reflector

PAS                 Pellenberg Audit System

PB                   Barometric pressure

PBPK              Physiologically based pharmacokinetics

PBX                 Private branch exchange

PC                   Personal computer

PC                   Programmable controller

PCB                 Polychlorinated biphenyls

PCB                 Printed circuit board

PCHE              Plasma cholinesterase

PCI                  Pulverized coal injection

PCMR              Proportionate cancer mortality ratio

PCR                 Polymerase chain reaction

PEF                 Peak expiratory flow

PEL                 Permissible exposure limits

PEP                 Post-exposure prophylaxis

PES                 Programmable Electronic Systems

PET                 Positron-emission tomography

PETE              Partnership for Environmental Technology Education

PFAS               Personal fall arrest system

PFD                 Personal flotation device

PFU                 Plaque-forming units

PHC                 Municipal health centres in Finland

PHCW              Primary health care workers

PHEL               Physiological heat exposure limit

PHS                 Public Health Service (US)

PHWR              Pressurized heavy water reactors

PID                  Photo-ionization detector

PIRS                Passive infrared sensor

PLC                 Programmable logic controller

PLS                 Pregnant leach solution

PM                  Poor metabolizer

PMF                Progressive massive fibrosis

PMN                Premanufacture notification

PMR                Proportional mortality ratio

PMS                Premenstrual syndrome

PMV                Predicted Mean Vote

PNOC              Particulate not otherwise classified

PNS                 Peripheral nervous system

POAH              Pre-optic/anterior hypothalamus

POC                Performance operating characteristic

POM                Particulate organic matter

POMS             Profile of Mood States

POP                Persistent organic pollutants

POTW             Publicly owned treatment works

PPD                 Purified protein derivative

PPE                 Personal protective equipment

PPO                Preferred provider organization

PRA                 Pre-Retirement Association

PRD                 Product requirements document

PRN                 Planning of Required Nursing

PROBAS         Danish Product Register Data Base

PRV                 Pressure relief valves

PSA                 Prostate specific antigen

PSC                 Probabilistic safety criteria

PSL                 Priority Substances List

PSP                 Paralytic shellfish poisoning

PSS                 Particle size selective

PSS                 Progressive systemic scleroderma

PTO                Power-take-off

PTS                 Permanent threshold shift

PTSD              Post-traumatic stress disorder

PUF                 Polyurethane foams

PV                   Pressure-vacuum

PVD                 Physical vapour deposition

PWB                Printed wiring board

PWI                 Projects with Industry

PWR                Pressurized water reactor


QALY              Quality adjusted life year

QFD                 Quality function deployment

QR                   Quick response

QRA                Quantified risk assessment

QWL                Quality of Working Life


R&D                 Research and development

RAC                 Recombinant Advisory Committee

RACB              Reproductive assessment by continuous breeding

RADS              Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome

RAMS              Russian Academy of Medical Scientists

RAP                 Remedial action plan

RAS                 Relative aerobic strain

RBC                 Red blood corpuscles

RBE                 Relative biological effectiveness

RBM                Raise boring machines

RBMK              Pressure tube large power boiling water reactors

RBMK              Power pressure-tube reactor

RCC                 Renal cell carcinoma

RCT                 Rational choice theory

RCW                Cold weather ration

RDF                 Refuse derived fuel

rDNA                Recombinant DNA

REL                 Recommended exposure limits

REM                Rapid eye movement

RES                 Reference Energy System

RES                 Reticuloendothelial system

RFP                 Request for proposal

R-R                  Response-response

RA                   Rosin active

RF                   Rheumatoid factors

RF                   Radiofrequency

RfD                  Reference dose

RFO                 Reduced-flow orifices

RH                   Relative humidity

RHR                 Rate of heat release

RHT                 Risk homeostasis theory

RID                  International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail

RIE                  Reactive ion etching

RIF                  Reduction in force

RMA                Rosin mildly active

RNA                 Ribonucleic acid

RNUR              Renault Organization

ROM                Run-of-mine

ROPS              Rollover protective structures

RPE                 Rating of perceived exertion

RPM                Respirable particulate mass

RR                   Relative risk

RSI                  Repetitive strain injury

RT                   Respiratory tract

RTB                 Retinol binding protein

RTECS            Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances

RTUM              Rehabilitation Technology Usability Model

RV                   Residual volume


SAB                 Spontaneous abortion

SAE                 Society of Automotive Engineers

SAG                Soviet Wismut Company

SAR                 Specific absorption rate

SAR                 Structure-activity relationships

SARA              Superfund Act Reauthorization Amendment (US)

SAT                 Soil-aquifer treatment

SAW                Submerged arc welding

SBN                 Single breath nitrogen

SBP                 Systolic blood pressure

SBR                 Styrene-butadiene rubber

SBS                 Sick building syndrome

SEER              Surveillance, epidemiology and end results

S-R                  Stimulus-response

S-S                  Stimulus-stimulus

SC                   Subcommittee

SCAT              Special casualty access teams

SCBA              Self-contained breathing apparatus

SCE                 Sister chromatid exchange

SCLC               Large cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma

SCUBA            Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus

SD                   Standard deviation

SDAG              Soviet-German Wismut Company

SDI                  Selective dissemination of information

SDQ                Safety Diagnosis Questionnaire

SDWA              Safe Drinking Water Act

SE                   Self-esteem

SEAT              Seat effective amplitude transmissibility

SED                 System ergonomic design

SEIU                Service Employees International Union

SELF               Ergonomics Society of French-Speaking Countries

SEMI               Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International

SEN/slide        Single-edge-notched/slide

SET                 Standard effective temperature

SEU                 Subjective expected utility

SEZ                 Special economic zones

SGA                Small for gestational age

SI                    Système international (International system of units of measurements)

SI                    Structured interview

SIA                  Semiconductor Industry Association

SIC                  Standard Industrial Classification

SIDS                Sudden infant death syndrome

SIL                  Safety Integrity Level

SIL                  Speech interference levels

SkBF                Skin blood flow

SLE                 Systemic lupus erythematosus

SLM                Sound level meter

SMAW             Shielded metal arc welding

SMC                Surface mount components

SME                Small- and medium-sized enterprises

SMORT           Safety Management and Organization Review Technique

SMP                Suspended particulate matter

SMR                Standardized Mortality Ratio

SMT                Surface mounting technology

SNAP              Sensory action potential

SNOMED         Systematic Nomenclature of Medicine

SNR                 Single Number Rating

SOC                Sense of coherence

SOGS              South Oaks Gambling Screen

SOLAS            International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea

SOP                Strategic Options Process

SPECT            Single photon emission computed tomography

SPES              Swedish Performance Evaluation System

SPF                 Sun protection factor

SPL                 Sound pressure level

SPM                Suspended particulate matter

SPRIA             Society for Participatory Research in Asia

SRR                 Standardized rate ratio

SS                   Sidestream smoke

SS                   Suspended solids

SSE                 Small-scale enterprise

SSM                Superficial spreading melanomas

STD                 Sexually transmitted disease

STEL               Short-term exposure limit

STEP              Sequentially timed events plotting procedure

SUVA              Swiss National Accident Insurance Organization

SUW                Solid urban wastes

SV                   Stroke volume

SV40               Simian virus 40

SVOC              Semi-volatile organic compounds

SWORD           Surveillance of Work-related Respiratory Disease

SXEW              Solvent extraction/ electrowinning process


TABP              Type A behaviour pattern

TAD                 Technical Inspection Service

TB                   Tracheobronchial

TBM                Tunnel-boring machine

TBS-GA           Tätigkeitsbewertungs System für geistige Arbeit (Task Diagnosis Survey-Mental Work)

TC                   Technical committees

TCC                 Transitional cell carcinoma

TCC                 Thermofor catalytic cracking

THP                 Total Health Promotion

TI                    Texas Instruments

TIG                  Tungsten inert gas

TLC                 Total lung capacity

TLD                 Thermoluminescent dosimeters

TLV                 Threshold limit value

TLV-STEL       Threshold limit values- short-term exposure levels

TLV-TWA        Threshold limit value-time weighted average

TNF                 Tumour necrosis factor

TNO                Dutch National Technical Institute

TOC                Total organic carbon

TOP                Technology, organization and personnel

TOS                Toxic oil syndrome

TPDA              Tellurium-radioiodinated fatty acid

TPM                Thoracic particulate mass

TQA                Total quality assurance

TQC                Total quality control

TQL                 Total quality leadership

TQM                Total quality management

TRGS              Technical rules for hazardous substances

TRI                  Toxic Release Inventory

TSCA              Toxic Substances Control Act (US)

TSD                 Theory of signal detection

TSNA              Tobacco-specific nitrosamines

TSP                 Total suspended particles

TSS                 Total suspended solids

TST                 Tuberculin skin test

TTE                 Total time exposed

TTS                 Temporary threshold shift

TUC                 Trades Union Congress (UK)

TUR                 Toxics use reduction

TUTB              European Trade Union Technical Bureau for Occupational Safety and Health

TVL                 Tenth-value layer

TVOC              Total volatile organic compound

TWA                Time-weighted average

TWAL              Time-weighted average limit


UAW                United Auto Workers

UDHR              Universal Declaration of Human Rights

ULPZ               Upper limit of the prescriptive zone

ULV                 Ultra-low volume

UN                   United Nations

UNCED            United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

UNCETG         United Nations Committee of Experts on Transport of Dangerous Goods

UNCHR            United Nations Commission on Human Rights

UNCLOS          United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea

UNCTAD          United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNCTC            United Nations Centre on Transnational Corporations

UNDP              United Nations Development Programme

UNDRO            United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator Office

UNECE            United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

UNEP              United Nations Environment Programme

UNEP-IRPTC   UNEP International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals

UNESCO         United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNFCCC          United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

UNFPA            United Nations Fund for Population Activities

UNGA              United Nations General Assembly

UNICE             Union of Industrial and Employers Confederations of Europe

UNIDO             United Nations Industrial Development Organization

UNIPEDE         Union internationale des producteurs et distributeurs d’énergie électrique

UNRTDG         United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods

UNSCEAR       United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation

UOEH              University of Occupational and Environmental Health (Japan)

USAID             United States Agency for International Development

USBLS            United States Bureau of Labor Statistics

USCFR            United States Code of Federal Regulations

USDA              United States Department of Agriculture

USDHHS          United States Department of Health and Human Services

USDOE            United States Department of Energy

USDOL            United States Department of Labor

USM                University Sains Malaysia

USNRC            United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

USOTA            United States Office of Technology Assessment

USPHS            United States Public Health Services

UST                 Underground storage tanks

UV                   Ultraviolet

UVA                 Ultraviolet radiation-A

UVB                 Ultraviolet radiation-B

UVC                 Ultraviolet radiation-C

UVGI               Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation

UVR                 Ultraviolet radiation


VA                   Visual acuity

VAV                 Variable volume

VC                   Vital capacity

VCR                 Vertical crater retreat

VDT                 Video display terminal

VDU                 Visual display unit

VLF                 Very low frequency

VMT                Vehicle mile travelled

VOC                Volatile organic compound

VPE                 Vapour-phase epitaxy

VPP                 Voluntary protection programme

VVS                 Vibration-related vasospastic syndrome

VWF                Vibration-induced white finger


WAA                Work-aggravated asthma

WANO             World Association of Nuclear Operators

WBC                White blood corpuscles

WBGT             Wet bulb globe temperature

WC                  Water closet

WCB                Workers’ Compensation Board

WCGS             Western Collaborative Group Study

WCI                 Wind Chill Index

WCL                World Confederation of Labour

WCS                Workers’ compensation system

WD                  Working draft

WEF                Work Environment Fund (Sweden)

WERC              Waste-management Education and Research Consortium

WFTU              World Federation of Trade Unions

WG                  Working group

WGT                Wet globe temperature

WHA                World Health Assembly

WHIMS            Wet high-intensity separator

WHMIS            Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (Canada)

WHO                World Health Organization

WHPA              Well head protection area

WLM                Working Level Month

WMA               World Medical Association

WRAP              Waste Reduction Always Pays

WRMD             Work-related musculoskeletal disorder

WTO                World Trade Organization


YMCA              Young Men’s Christian Association


ZCTU               Zambia Congress of Trade Unions

ZDV                 Zidovudine

ZeBWis            Wismut Central Care Office

ZIGUV             Central Information System of the BG

ZPP                 Zinc protoporphyrin



" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."