Historically, the sexual harassment of female workers has been ignored, denied, made to seem trivial, condoned and even implicitly supported, with women themselves being blamed for it (MacKinnon 1978). Its victims are almost entirely women, and it has been a problem since females first sold their labour outside the home.
Although sexual harassment also exists outside the workplace, here it will be taken to denote harassment in the workplace.
Sexual harassment is not an innocent flirtation nor the mutual expression of attraction between men and women. Rather, sexual harassment is a workplace stressor that poses a threat to a woman’s psychological and physical integrity and security, in a context in which she has little control because of the risk of retaliation and the fear of losing her livelihood. Like other workplace stressors, sexual harassment may have adverse health consequences for women that can be serious and, as such, qualifies as a workplace health and safety issue (Bernstein 1994).
In the United States, sexual harassment is viewed primarily as a discrete case of wrongful conduct to which one may appropriately respond with blame and recourse to legal measures for the individual. In the European Community it tends to be viewed rather as a collective health and safety issue (Bernstein 1994).
Because the manifestations of sexual harassment vary, people may not agree on its defining qualities, even where it has been set forth in law. Still, there are some common features of harassment that are generally accepted by those doing work in this area:
When directed towards a specific woman it can involve sexual comments and seductive behaviours, “propositions” and pressure for dates, touching, sexual coercion through the use of threats or bribery and even physical assault and rape. In the case of a “hostile environment”, which is probably the more common state of affairs, it can involve jokes, taunts and other sexually charged comments that are threatening and demeaning to women; pornographic or sexually explicit posters; and crude sexual gestures, and so forth. One can add to these characteristics what is sometimes called “gender harassment”, which more involves sexist remarks that demean the dignity of women.
Women themselves may not label unwanted sexual attention or sexual remarks as harassing because they accept it as “normal” on the part of males (Gutek 1985). In general, women (especially if they have been harassed) are more likely to identify a situation as sexual harassment than men, who tend rather to make light of the situation, to disbelieve the woman in question or to blame her for “causing” the harassment (Fitzgerald and Ormerod 1993). People also are more likely to label incidents involving supervisors as sexually harassing than similar behaviour by peers (Fitzgerald and Ormerod 1993). This tendency reveals the significance of the differential power relationship between the harasser and the female employee (MacKinnon 1978.) As an example, a comment that a male supervisor may believe is complimentary may still be threatening to his female employee, who may fear that it will lead to pressure for sexual favours and that there will be retaliation for a negative response, including the potential loss of her job or negative evaluations.
Even when co-workers are involved, sexual harassment can be difficult for women to control and can be very stressful for them. This situation can occur where there are many more men than women in a work group, a hostile work environment is created and the supervisor is male (Gutek 1985; Fitzgerald and Ormerod 1993).
National data on sexual harassment are not collected, and it is difficult to obtain accurate numbers on its prevalence. In the United States, it has been estimated that 50% of all women will experience some form of sexual harassment during their working lives (Fitzgerald and Ormerod 1993). These numbers are consistent with surveys conducted in Europe (Bustelo 1992), although there is variation from country to country (Kauppinen-Toropainen and Gruber 1993). The extent of sexual harassment is also difficult to determine because women may not label it accurately and because of underreporting. Women may fear that they will be blamed, humiliated and not believed, that nothing will be done and that reporting problems will result in retaliation (Fitzgerald and Ormerod 1993). Instead, they may try to live with the situation or leave their jobs and risk serious financial hardship, a disruption of their work histories and problems with references (Koss et al. 1994).
Sexual harassment reduces job satisfaction and increases turnover, so that it has costs for the employer (Gutek 1985; Fitzgerald and Ormerod 1993; Kauppinen-Toropainen and Gruber 1993). Like other workplace stressors, it also can have negative effects on health that are sometimes quite serious. When the harassment is severe, as with rape or attempted rape, women are seriously traumatized. Even where sexual harassment is less severe, women can have psychological problems: they may become fearful, guilty and ashamed, depressed, nervous and less self-confident. They may have physical symptoms such as stomach-aches, headaches or nausea. They may have behavioural problems such as sleeplessness, over- or undereating, sexual problems and difficulties in their relations with others (Swanson et al. 1997).
Both the formal American and informal European approaches to combating harassment provide illustrative lessons (Bernstein 1994). In Europe, sexual harassment is sometimes dealt with by conflict resolution approaches that bring in third parties to help eliminate the harassment (e.g., England’s “challenge technique”). In the United States, sexual harassment is a legal wrong that provides victims with redress through the courts, although success is difficult to achieve. Victims of harassment also need to be supported through counselling, where needed, and helped to understand that they are not to blame for the harassment.
Prevention is the key to combating sexual harassment. Guidelines encouraging prevention have been promulgated through the European Commission Code of Practice (Rubenstein and DeVries 1993). They include the following: clear anti-harassment policies that are effectively communicated; special training and education for managers and supervisors; a designated ombudsperson to deal with complaints; formal grievance procedures and alternatives to them; and disciplinary treatment of those who violate the policies. Bernstein (1994) has suggested that mandated self-regulation may be a viable approach.
Finally, sexual harassment needs to be openly discussed as a workplace issue of legitimate concern to women and men. Trade unions have a critical role to play in helping place this issue on the public agenda. Ultimately, an end to sexual harassment requires that men and women reach social and economic equality and full integration in all occupations and workplaces.
The nature, prevalence, predictors and possible consequences of workplace violence have begun to attract the attention of labour and management practitioners, and researchers. The reason for this is the increasing occurrence of highly visible workplace murders. Once the focus is placed on workplace violence, it becomes clear that there are several issues, including the nature (or definition), prevalence, predictors, consequences and ultimately prevention of workplace violence.
Definition and Prevalence of Workplace Violence
The definition and prevalence of workplace violence are integrally related.
Consistent with the relative recency with which workplace violence has attracted attention, there is no uniform definition. This is an important issue for several reasons. First, until a uniform definition exists, any estimates of prevalence remain incomparable across studies and sites. Secondly, the nature of the violence is linked to strategies for prevention and interventions. For example, focusing on all instances of shootings within the workplace includes incidents that reflect the continuation of family conflicts, as well as those that reflect work-related stressors and conflicts. While employees would no doubt be affected in both situations, the control the organization has over the former is more limited, and hence the implications for interventions are different from those situations in which workplace shootings are a direct function of workplace stressors and conflicts.
Some statistics suggest that workplace murders are the fastest growing form of murder in the United States (for example, Anfuso 1994). In some jurisdictions (for example, New York State), murder is the modal cause of death in the workplace. Because of statistics such as these, workplace violence has attracted considerable attention recently. However, early indications suggest that those acts of workplace violence with the highest visibility (for example, murder, shootings) attract the greatest research scrutiny, but also occur with the least frequency. In contrast, verbal and psychological aggression against supervisors, subordinates and co-workers are far more common, but gather less attention. Supporting the notion of a close integration between definitional and prevalence issues, this would suggest that what is being studied in most cases is aggression rather than violence in the workplace.
Predictors of Workplace Violence
A reading of the literature on the predictors of workplace violence would reveal that most of the attention has been focused on the development of a “profile” of the potentially violent or “disgruntled” employee (for example, Mantell and Albrecht 1994; Slora, Joy and Terris 1991), most of which would identify the following as the salient personal characteristics of a disgruntled employee: white, male, aged 20-35, a “loner”, probable alcohol problem and a fascination with guns. Aside from the problem of the number of false-positive identifications this would lead to, this strategy is also based on identifying individuals predisposed to the most extreme forms of violence, and ignores the larger group involved in most of the aggressive and less violent workplace incidents.
Going beyond “demographic” characteristics, there are suggestions that some of the personal factors implicated in violence outside of the workplace would extend to the workplace itself. Thus, inappropriate use of alcohol, general history of aggression in one’s current life or family of origin, and low self-esteem have been implicated in workplace violence.
A more recent strategy has been to identify the workplace conditions under which workplace violence is most likely to occur: identifying the physical and psychosocial conditions in the workplace. While the research on psychosocial factors is still in its infancy, it would appear as though feelings of job insecurity, perceptions that organizational policies and their implementation are unjust, harsh management and supervision styles, and electronic monitoring are associated with workplace aggression and violence (United States House of Representatives 1992; Fox and Levin 1994).
Cox and Leather (1994) look to the predictors of aggression and violence in general in their attempt to understand the physical factors that predict workplace violence. In this respect, they suggest that workplace violence may be associated with perceived crowding, and extreme heat and noise. However, these suggestions about the causes of workplace violence await empirical scrutiny.
Consequences of workplace violence
The research to date suggests that there are primary and secondary victims of workplace violence, both of which are worthy of research attention. Bank tellers or store clerks who are held up and employees who are assaulted at work by current or former co-workers are the obvious or direct victims of violence at work. However, consistent with the literature showing that much human behaviour is learned from observing others, witnesses to workplace violence are secondary victims. Both groups might be expected to suffer negative effects, and more research is needed to focus on the way in which both aggression and violence at work affect primary and secondary victims.
Prevention of workplace violence
Most of the literature on the prevention of workplace violence focuses at this stage on prior selection, i.e., the prior identification of potentially violent individuals for the purpose of excluding them from employment in the first instance (for example, Mantell and Albrecht 1994). Such strategies are of dubious utility, for ethical and legal reasons. From a scientific perspective, it is equally doubtful whether we could identify potentially violent employees with sufficient precision (e.g., without an unacceptably high number of false-positive identifications). Clearly, we need to focus on workplace issues and job design for a preventive approach. Following Fox and Levin’s (1994) reasoning, ensuring that organizational policies and procedures are characterized by perceived justice will probably constitute an effective prevention technique.
Research on workplace violence is in its infancy, but gaining increasing attention. This bodes well for the further understanding, prediction and control of workplace aggression and violence.
Adams, LL, RE LaPorte, KA Matthews, TJ Orchard, and LH Kuller. 1986. Blood pressure determinants in a middle-class black population: The University of Pittsburgh experience. Prevent Med 15:232-242.
Adriaanse, H, J vanReek, L Zanbelt, and G Evers. 1991. Nurses’ smoking worldwide. A review of 73 surveys of nurses’ tobacco consuption in 21 countries in the period of 1959-1988. Journal of Nursing Studies 28:361-375.
Agren, G and A Romelsjo. 1992. Mortality and alcohol-related diseases in Sweden during 1971-80 in relation of occupation, marital status and citizenship in 1970. Scand J Soc Med 20:134-142.
Aiello, JR and Y Shao. 1993. Electronic performance monitoring and stress: The role of feedback and goal setting. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference On Human-Computer Interaction, edited by MJ Smith and G Salvendy. New York: Elsevier.
Akselrod, S, D Gordon, JB Madwed, NC Snidman, BC Shannon, and RJ Cohen. 1985. Hemodynamic regulation: Investigation by spectral analysis. Am J Physiol 241:H867-H875.
Alexander, F. 1950. Psychosomatic Medicine: Its Principles and Applications. New York: WW Norton.
Allan, EA and DJ Steffensmeier. 1989. Youth, underemployment, and property crime: Differential effects of job availability and job quality on juvenile and young arrest rates. Am Soc Rev 54:107-123.
Allen, T. 1977. Managing the Flow of Technology. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Amick, BC, III and MJ Smith. 1992. Stress, computer-based work monitoring and measurement systems: A conceptual overview. Appl Ergon 23:6-16.
Anderson, EA and AL Mark. 1989. Microneurographic measurement of sympathetic nerve activity in humans. In Handbook of Cardiovascular Behavioral Medicine, edited by N Schneiderman, SM Weiss, and PG Kaufmann. New York: Plenum.
Aneshensel, CS, CM Rutter, and PA Lachenbruch. 1991. Social structure, stress and mental health: Competing conceptual and analytic models. Am Soc Rev 56:166-178.
Anfuso, D. 1994. Workplace violence. Pers J :66-77.
Anthony, JC et al. 1992. Psychoactive drug dependence and abuse: More common in some occupations than others? J Employ Assist Res 1:148-186.
Antonovsky, A. 1979. Health, Stress and Coping: New Perspectives On Mental and Physical Well-Being. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
—. 1987. Unravelling the Mystery of Health: How People Manage Stress and Stay Well. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Appels, A. 1990. Mental precursors of myocardial infarction. Brit J Psychiat 156:465-471.
Archea, J and BR Connell. 1986. Architecture as an instrument of public health: Mandating practice prior to the conduct of systematic inquiry. In Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Environmental Design Research Association, edited by J Wineman, R Barnes, and C Zimring. Washington, DC: Environmental Design Research Association.
Aschoff, J. 1981. Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology. Vol. 4. New York: Plenum.
Axelrod, J and JD Reisine. 1984. Stress hormones: Their interaction and regulation. Science 224:452-459.
Azrin, NH and VB Beasalel. 1982. Finding a Job. Berkeley, Calif: Ten Speed Press.
Baba, VV and MJ Harris. 1989. Stress and absence: A cross-cultural perspective. Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management Suppl. 1:317-337.
Baker, D, P Schnall, and PA Landsbergis. 1992. Epidemiologic research on the association between occupational stress and cardiovascular disease. In Behavioral Medicine: An Integrated Approach to Health and Illness, edited by S Araki. New York: Elsevier Science.
Bandura, A. 1977. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev 84:191-215.
—. 1986. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Barnett, BC. 1992. . In Handbook of Stress, edited by L Goldberger and S Breznitz. New York: Free Press.
Barnett, RC, L Biener, and GK Baruch. 1987. Gender and Stress. New York: Free Press.
Barnett, RC, RT Brennan, and NL Marshall. 1994. Forthcoming. Gender and the relationship between parent-role quality and psychological distress: A study of men and women in dual-earner couples. J Fam Issues.
Barnett, RC, NL Marshall, SW Raudenbush, and R Brennan. 1993. Gender and the relationship between job experiences and psychological distress: A study of dual-earner couples. J Personal Soc Psychol 65(5):794-806.
Barnett, RC, RT Brennan, SW Raudenbush, and NL Marshall. 1994. Gender, and the relationship between marital role-quality and psychological distress: A study of dual-earner couples. Psychol Women Q 18:105-127.
Barnett, RC, SW Raudenbush, RT Brennan, JH Pleck, and NL Marshall. 1995. Change in job and marital experiences and change in psychological distress: A longitudinal study of dual-earner couples. J Personal Soc Psychol 69:839-850.
Bartrop, RW, E Luckhurst, L Lazarus, LG Kiloh, and R Penny. 1977. Depressed lymphocyte function after bereavement. Lancet 1:834-836.
Bass, BM. 1992. Stress and leadership. In Decision Making and Leadership, edited by F Heller. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Bass, C. 1986. Life events and gastrointestinal symptoms. Gut 27:123-126.
Baum, A, NE Grunberg, and JE Singer. 1982. The use of psychological and neuroendocrinological measurements in the study of stress. Health Pyschology (Summer):217-236.
Beck, AT. 1967. Depression: Clinical, Experimental, and Theoretical Aspects. New York: Hoeber.
Becker, FD. 1990. The Total Workplace: Facilities Management and the Elastic Organization. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Beehr, TA. 1995. Psychological Stress in the Workplace. London, U.K.: Routledge.
Beehr, TA and JE Newman. 1978. Job stress, employee health and organizational effectiveness: A facet analysis, model and literature review. Pers Psychol 31:665-669.
Bennis, WG. 1969. Organizational developments and the fate of bureaucracy. In Readings in Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, edited by LL Cummings and WEJ Scott. Homewood, Il:Richard D. Irwin, Inc. and The Dorsey Press.
Benowitz, NL. 1990. Clinical pharmacology of caffeine. Ann Rev Med 41:277-288.
Bergman, BR. 1986. The Economic Emergence of Women. New York: Basic.
Bernstein, A. 1994. Law, culture and harassment. Univ Penn Law Rev 142(4):1227-1311.
Berntson, GG, JT Cacioppo, and KS Quigley. 1993. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Autonomic origins, physiological mechanisms, and psychophysiological implications. Psychophysiol 30:183-196.
Berridge, J, CL Cooper and C Highley. 1997. Employee Assistance Programs and Workplace Counselling. Chisester and New York: Wiley.
Billings, AG and RH Moos. 1981. The role of coping responses and social resources in attenuating the stress of life events. J Behav Med 4(2):139-157.
Blanchard, EB, SP Schwarz, J Suls, MA Gerardi, L Scharff, B Green, AE Taylor, C Berreman, and HS Malamood. 1992. Two controlled evaluations of multicomponent psychological treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Behav Res Ther 30:175-189.
Blinder, AS. 1987. Hard Heads and Soft Hearts: Tough Minded Economics for a Just Society. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley.
Bongers, PM, CR de Winter, MAJ Kompier, and VH Hildebrandt. 1993. Psychosocial factors at work and musculoskeletal disease. Scand J Work Environ Health 19:297-312.
Booth-Kewley, S and HS Friedman. 1987. Psychological predictors of heart disease: A quantitative review. Psychol Bull 101:343-362.
Brady, JV, RW Porter, DG Conrad, and JW Mason. 1958. Avoidance behavior and the development of gastrointestinal ulcers. J Exp Anal Behav 1:69-73.
Brandt, LPA and CV Nielsen. 1992. Job stress and adverse outcome of pregnancy: A causal link or recall bias? Am J Epidemiol 135(3).
Breaugh, JA and JP Colihan. 1994. Measuring facets of job ambiguity: Construct validity evidence. J Appl Psychol 79:191-202.
Brenner, M. 1976. Estimating the social costs of economic policy: implications for mental and physical health and criminal aggression. Report to the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress and Joint Economic Committee of Congress. Washington, DC: US GPO.
Brenner, MH. March 1987. Relations of economic change to Swedish health and social well-being, 1950-1980. Soc Sci Med :183-195.
Brief, AP, MJ Burke, JM George, BS Robinson, and J Webster. 1988. Should negative affectivity render an unmeasured variable in the study of job stress? J Appl Psychol 73:193-198.
Brill, M, S Margulis, and E Konar. 1984. Using Office Design to Increase Productivity. Buffalo, NY: Workplace Design and Productivity.
Brisson, C, M Vezina, and A Vinet. 1992. Health problems of women employed in jobs involving psychological and ergonomic stressors: The case of garment workers in Quebec. Women Health 18:49-65.
Brockner, J. 1983. Low self-esteem and behavioral plasticity: Some implications. In Review of Personality and Social Psychology, edited by L Wheeler and PR Shaver. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage.
—. 1988. Self-Esteem At Work. Lexington, Mass: Heath.
Bromet, EJ. 1988. Predictive effects of occupational and marital stress on the mental health of a male workforce. J Organ Behav 9:1-13.
Bromet, EJ, DK Parkinson, EC Curtis, HC Schulberg, H Blane, LO Dunn, J Phelan, MA Dew, and JE Schwartz. 1990. Epidemiology of depression and alcohol abuse/dependence in a managerial and professional workforce. J Occup Med 32(10):989-995.
Buck, V. 1972. Working Under Pressure. London: Staples.
Bullard, RD and BH Wright. 1986/1987. Blacks and the environment. Humboldt J Soc Rel 14:165-184.
Bureau of National Affairs (BNA). 1991. Work and Family Today: 100 Key Statistics. Washington, DC: BNA.
Burge, S, A Hedge, S Wilson, JH Bass, and A Robertson. 1987. Sick building syndrome: A study of 4373 office workers. Ann Occup Hyg 31:493-504.
Burke, W and G Salvendy. 1981. Human Aspects of Working On Repetitive Machine-Paced and Self-Paced Work: A Review and Reappraisal. West Lafayette, Ind: School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue Univ.
Burns, JM. 1978. Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
Bustelo, C. 1992. The “international sickness” of sexual harassment. World Press Rev 39:24.
Cacioppo, JT and LG Tassinary. 1990. Principles of Psychophysiology. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Cain, PS and DJ Treiman. 1981. The dictionary of occupational titles as a source of occupational data. Am Soc Rev 46:253-278.
Caldwell, DF and CA O’Reilly. 1990. Measuring person-job fit with a profile-comparison process. J Appl Psychol 75:648-657.
Caplan, RD, S Cobb, JRPJ French, RV Harrison, and SRJ Pinneau. 1980. Job Demands and Worker Health. Ann Arbor, Mich: Institute for Social Research.
Caplan, RD. 1983. Person-environment fit: Past, present, and future. In Stress Research: Issues for the Eighties, edited by CL Cooper. New York: Wiley.
Caplan, RD, S Cobb, JRPJ French, R Van Harrison, and R Pinneau. 1975. Job Demands and Worker Health: Main Effects and Occupational Differences. Washington, DC: US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
Caplan, RD, AD Vinokur, RH Price, and M van Ryn. 1989. Job seeking, reemployment and mental health: A randomized field experiment in coping with job loss. J Appl Psychol 74(5):759-769.
Caplin, G. 1969. Principles of Preventive Psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.
Cannon, WB. 1914. The emergency function of the adrenal medulla in pain and other emotions. Am J Physiol 33:356-372.
—. 1935. Stresses and strains of homeostasis. Am J Med Sci 189:1-14.
Canter, D. 1983. The physical context of work. In The Physical Environment At Work, edited by DJ Osborne and MM Grunberg. Chichester: Wiley.
Carayon, P. 1993. Effect of electronic performance monitoring on job design and worker stress: A review of the literature and conceptual model. Hum Factors 35(3):385-396.
—. 1994. Effects of electronic performance monitoring on job design and worker stress: Results of two studies. Int J Hum Comput Interact 6:177-190.
Cassel, JP. 1974. The contribution of the social environment to host resistance. American Journal of Epidemiology 104:161-166.
Cassel, J. 1976. The contribution of the social environment to host resistance. Am J Epidemiol 104:107-123.
Catalano, R. 1991. The health effects of economic insecurity. Am J Public Health 81:1148-1152.
Catalano, R, D Dooley, R Novaco, G Wilson, and R Hough. 1993a-a. Using ECA survey data to examine the effect of job layoffs on violent behavior. Hosp Community Psychiat 44:874-879.
Catalano, R, D Dooley, G Wilson, and R Hough. 1993b. Job loss and alcohol abuse: A test using data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area project. J Health Soc Behav 34:215-225.
Chatman, JA. 1991. Matching people and organizations: Selection and socialization in public accounting firms. Adm Sci Q 36:459-484.
Christensen, K. 1992. Managing invisible employees: How to meet the telecommuting challenge. Employ Relat Today :133-143.
Cobb, S. 1976. Social support as a mediator of life stress. Psychosocial Medicine 38:300-314.
Cobb, S and RM Rose. 1973. Hypertension, peptic ulcer, and diabetes in air traffic controllers. J Am Med Assoc 224(4):489-492.
Cohen, A. 1991. Career stage as a moderator of the relationships between organizational commitment and its outcomes: A meta-analysis. J Occup Psychol 64:253-268.
Cohen, RL and FL Ahearn. 1980. Handbook for Mental Health Care of Disaster Victims. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Cohen, S and SL Syme. 1985. Social Support and Health. New York: Academic Books.
Cohen, N, R Ader, N Green, and D Bovbjerg. 1979. Conditioned suppression of thymus-independent antibody response. Psychosom Med 41:487-491.
Cohen, S and S Spacapan. 1983. The after effects of anticipating noise exposure. In Noise As a Public Health Problem, edited by G Rossi. Milan: Centro Ricerche e Studi Amplifon.
Cole, RJ, RT Loving, and DF Kripke. 1990. Psychiatric aspects of shiftwork. Occup Med 5:301-314.
Colligan, MJ. 1985. An apparent case of mass psychogenic illness in an aluminium furniture assembly plant. In Job Stress and Blue Collar Work, edited by C Cooper and MJ Smith. London: John Wiley & Sons.
Colligan, MJ, JW Pennebaker, and LR Murphy. 1982. Mass Psychogenic Illness: A Social Psychological Analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Colligan, MJ and RR Rosa. 1990. Shiftwork effects on social and family life. Occup Med 5:315-322.
Contrada, RJ and DS Krantz. 1988. Stress, reactivity and type A behavior: Current status and future directions. Ann Behav Med 10:64-70.
Conway, TL, RR Vickers, HW Ward, and RH Rahe. 1981. Occupational stress and variation in cigarette, coffee and alcohol consumption. Journal of Health & Social Behaviour 22:155-165.
Cooper, C. 1996. Handbook of Stress, Medicine and Health. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Cooper, CL and RS Bramwell. 1992. Predictive validity of the strain component of the occupational stress indicator. Stress Medicine 8:57-60.
Cooper, C and J Marshall. 1976. Occupational sources of stress: A review of the literature relating to coronary heart disease and mental ill health. J Occup Psychol 49:11-28.
Cooper, CL and S Cartwright. 1994. Mental Health and Stress in the Workplace: A Guide to Employers. London: HMSO.
Cooper, CL, P Liukkonen, and S Cartwright. 1996. Stress Prevention in the Workplace: Assessing the Costs and Benefits to Organisations. Dublin: European Foundation.
Cooper, CL and R Payne. 1988. Causes, Coping, and Consequences of Stress At Work. New York: Wiley.
—. 1991. Personality and Stress: Individual Differences in the Stress Process. Chichester: Wiley.
Cooper, CL and MJ Smith. 1985. Job Stress and Blue Collar Work. New York: Wiley.
Cox, S, T Cox, M Thirlaway, and C MacKay. 1982. Effects of simulated repetitive work on urinary catecholamine excretion. Ergonomics 25:1129-1141.
Cox, T and P Leather. 1994. The prevention of violence at work: Application of a cognitive behavioral theory. In International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, edited by CL Cooper and IT Robertson. London: Wiley.
Crum, RM, C Mutaner, WW Eaton, and JC Anthony. 1995. Occupational stress and the risk of alcohol abuse and dependence. Alcohol, Clin Exp Res 19(3):647-655.
Cummins, R. 1989. Locus of control and social support: Clarifiers of the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. J Appl Soc Psychol 19:772-788.
Cvetanovski, J and SM Jex. 1994. Locus of control of unemployed people and its relationship to psychological and physical health. Work Stress 8:60-67.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. 1975. Beyond Boredom and Anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Dainoff, MJ and MH Dainoff. 1986. People and Productivity. Toronto: Holt, Reinhart, & Winston of Canada.
Damasio, A. 1994. Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain. New York: Grosset/Putnam.
Danko, S, P Eshelman, and A Hedge. 1990. A taxonomy of health, safety, and welfare, implications of interior design decisions. J Interior Des Educ Res 16:19-30.
Dawis, RV and LH Lofquist. 1984. A Psychological Theory of Work Adjustment. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.
The death of corporate loyalty. 1993. Economist 3 April, 63-64.
Dement, W. 1969. The biological role of REM sleep. In Sleep Physiology and Pathology: A Symposium, edited by A Kales. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott.
Deming, WE. 1993. The New Economics for Industry, Government, Education. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Center for Advance Engineering Study.
Dewe, PJ. 1989. Examining the nature of work stress: Individual evaluations of stressful experiences and coping. Hum Relat 42:993-1013.
Ditecco, D, G Cwitco, A Arsenault, and M Andre. 1992. Operator stress and monitoring practices. Appl Ergon 23(1):29-34.
Dohrenwend, BS and BP Dohrenwend. 1974. Stressful Life Events: Their Nature and Effects. New York: Wiley.
Dohrenwend, BS, L Krasnoff, AR Askenasy, and BP Dohrenwend. 1978. Exemplification of a method for scaling life events: The PERI life events scale. J Health Soc Behav 19:205-229.
Dooley, D. 1985. Causal inference in the study of social support. In Social Support and Health, edited by S Cohen and SL Syme. New York:Academic Books.
Dooley, D, R Catalano, and R Hough. 1992. Unemployment and alcohol disorder in 1910 and 1990: Drift versus social causation. J Occup Organ Psychol 65:277-290.
Dooley, D, R Catalano, and G Wilson. 1994. Depression and unemployment: Panel findings from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. Am J Community Psychol 22:745-765.
Douglas, RB, R Blanks, A Crowther, and G Scott. 1988. A study of stress in West Midlands firemen, using ambulatory electrocardiograms. Work Stress: 247-250.
Eaton, WW, JC Anthony, W Mandel, and R Garrison. 1990. Occupations and the prevalence of major depressive disorder. J Occup Med 32(11):1079-1087.
Edwards, JR. 1988. The determinants and consequences of coping with stress. In Causes, Coping and Consequences of Stress At Work, edited by CL Cooper and R Payne. New York: Wiley.
Edwards, JR and RV Harrison. 1993. Job demands and worker health: A three dimensional reexamination of the relationship between person-environment fit and strain. J Appl Psychol 78:628-648.
Elander, J, R West, and D French. 1993. Behavioral correlates of individual differences in road-traffic crash risk: An examination of methods and findings. Psychol Bull 113:279-294.
Emmett, EA. 1991. Physical and chemical agents at the workplace. In Work, Health and Productivity, edited by GM Green and F Baker. New York:Oxford University Press.
Endresen, IM, B Ellersten, C Endresen, AM Hjelmen, R Matre, and H Ursin. 1991. Stress at work and psychological and immunological parameters in a group of Norwegian female bank employees. Work Stress 5:217-227.
Esler, M, G Jennings, and G Lambert. 1989. Measurement of overall and cardiac norepinephrine release into plasma during cognitive challenge. Psychoneuroendocrinol 14:477-481.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. 1992. First European Suvey On the Work Environment 1991-1992. Luxembourg: Office of the Official Publications of the European Community.
Everly, GS, Jr and RH Feldman. 1985. Occupational Health Promotion: Health Behavior in the Workplace. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Faucett, J and D Rempel. 1994. VDT-related musculoskeletal symptoms: Interactions between work and posture and psychosocial factors. Am J Ind Med 26:597-612.
Feigenbaum, AV. 1991. Total quality: An international imperative. In Maintaining the Total Quality Advantage, edited by BH Peters and JL Peters. New York: The Conference Board.
Feldman, DC. l976. A contingency theory of socialization. Adm Sci Q 21:433-452.
Fenster, L, C Schaefer, A Mathur, RA Hiatt, C Pieper, AE Hubbard, J Von Behren, and S Swan. 1995. Psychological stress in the workplace and spontaneous abortion. Am J Epidemiol 142(11).
Ferber, MA, B O’Farrell, and L Allen. 1991. Work and Family: Policies for a Changing Workforce. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Fernandez, JP. 1981. Racism and Sexism in Corporate Life. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.
—. 1990. The Politics and Reality of Family Care in Corporate America. Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books.
Fiedler, FE. 1967. A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Fielding, JE and KJ Phenow. 1988. Health effects of involuntary smoking. New Engl J Med 319:1452-1460.
Fisher, C. l985. Social support and adjustment to work: A longitudinal study. J Manage 11:39-53.
Fith-Cozens, J. 1987. Emotional distress in junior house officers. Brit Med J 295:533-536.
Fitzgerald, LF and AJ Ormerod. 1993. Breaking silence: The sexual harassment of women in academia and the workplace. In Psychology of Women, edited by FL Denmark and MA Paludi. London: Greenwood Press.
Flechter, B. 1988. Occupation, marriage and disease specific mortality concordance. Soc Sci Med 27:615-622.
Ford, DL. 1985. Facets of work support and employee work outcomes: An exploratory analysis. J Manage 11:5-20.
Fox, AJ and J Levin. 1994. Firing back: The growing threat of workplace homicide. Ann Am Acad Polit SS 536:16-30.
Fox, BH. 1995. The role of psychological factors in cancer incidence and prognosis. Oncology 9(3):245-253.
—. 1989. Depressive symptoms and risk of cancer. J Am Med Assoc 262(9): 1231.
—. 1981. Psychosocial factors and the immune system in human cancer. In Psychoneuroimmunology, edited by R Ader. New York: Academic Press.
Frankenhaeuser, M. 1986. A psychobiological framework for research on human stress and coping. In Dynamics of Stress, edited by MH Appley and R Trumbull. New York: Plenum.
—. 1989. A biopsychosocial approach to work life issues. Int J Health Serv 19:747-758.
—. 1991. The psychophysiology of workload, stress and health: Comparison between the sexes. Ann Behav Med 13:197-204.
—. 1993a. Current issues in psychobiological stress research. In European Views in Psychology - Keynote Lectures, edited by M Vartiainen. Helsinki: Acta Psychologica Fennica XIII.
—. 1993b. The measurement of the total workload of men and women. In A Healthier Work Environment - Basic Concepts and Methods of Measurements, edited by L Levi. Geneva: WHO.
—. 1996. Stress and gender. Eur Rev, Interdis J Acad Eur 4.
Frankenhaeuser, M and G Johansson. 1986. Stress at work: Psychobiological and psychosocial aspects. Int Rev Appl Psychol 35:287-299.
Frankenhaeuser, M, C Lundberg, and L Forsman. 1980. Dissociation between sympathetic-adrenal and pituitary-adrenal responses to an achievement situation characterized by high controllability: Comparison between Type A and Type B males and females. Biol Psychol 10:79-91.
Frankenhaeuser, M, U Lundberg, and MA Chesney. 1991. Women, Work and Health. Stress and Opportunities. New York: Plenum.
Frankenhaeuser, M, U Lundberg, M Fredrikson, B Melin, M Tuomisto, A-L Myrsten, M Hedman, B Bergman-Losman, and L Wallin. 1989. Stress on and off the job as related to sex and occupational status in white-collar workers. J Organ Behav 10:321-346.
Frankenhaeuser, M and B Gardell. 1976. Underload and overload in working life: Outline of a multidisciplinary approach. Journal of Human Stress 2:35-46.
French, JRP and RD Caplan. 1973. Organizational stress and individual strain. In The Failure of Success, edited by AJ Marrow. New York: Amacon.
French, JRP, W Rodgers, and S Cobb. 1974. Adjustment as person-environment fit. In Coping and Adaption, edited by GV Coelho, DA Hamburg, and JE Adams. New York:Basic Books.
French, WL and CH Bell. 1990. Organizational Development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
French, JRP, RD Caplan, and R van Harrison. 1982. The Mechanisms of Job Stress and Strain. New York: Wiley.
Frese, M and D Zapf. 1988. Methodological issues in the study of work stress: Objective vs. subjective measurement of work stress and the question of longitudinal studies. In Causes, Coping and Consequences of Stress At Work, edited by CL Cooper and R Payne. New York: Wiley.
Friedman, M, CE Thoresen, JJ Gill, D Ulmer, LII Powell, VA Prince, et al. 1986. Alteration of type A behavior and its effect on cardiac recurrences in post myocardial infarction patients; summary results of the Recurrent Coronary Prevention Project. Am Heart J 112:653-665.
Fryer, D and R Payne. 1986. Being unemployed: A review of the literature on the psychological experience of unemployment. In International Review of Industrial Organizational Psychology, edited by CL Cooper and I Robertson. Chichester: Wiley.
Funk, SC and BK Houston. 1987. A critical analysis of the hardiness scales’ validity and utility. J Personal Soc Psychol 53:572-578.
Fusilier, MR, DC Ganster, and BT Mays. 1987. Effects of social support, role stress, and locus of control on health. J Manage 13:517-528.
Galinsky, E, JT Bond, and DE Friedman. 1993. Highlights: The National Study of the Changing Workforce. New York: Families and Work Institute.
Gamble, GO and MT Matteson. 1992. Type A behavior, job satisfaction, and stress among Black professionals. Psychol Rep 70:43-50.
Ganster, DC and MR Fusilier. 1989. Control in the workplace. In International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, edited by
C Cooper and I Robertson. Chichester, U.K.:Wiley.
Ganster, DC. 1989. Worker control and well-being: A review of research in the workplace. In Job Control and Worker Health, edited by SL Sauter, JJ Hurrell, and CL Cooper. New York: Wiley.
Ganster, DC and J Schaubroeck. 1991a. Role stress and worker health: An extension of the plasticity hypothesis of self-esteem. J Soc Behav Personal 6:349-360.
—. 1991b. Work stress and employee health. J Manage 17:235-271.
Ganster, DC, BT Mayes, WE Sime, and GD Tharp. 1982. Managing occupational stress: A field experiment. J Appl Psychol 67:533-542.
Gardell, B. 1981. Psychosocial aspects of industrial production methods. In Society, Stress and Disease, edited by L Levi. Oxford: OUP.
Garrison, R and WW Eaton. 1992. Secretaries, depression and absenteeism. Women Health 18:53-76.
Gillin, JC and WF Byerley. 1990. The diagnosis and management of insomnia. New England Journal of Medicine 322:239-248.
Glaser, R, JK Kiecolt-Glaser, RH Bonneau, W Malarkey, S Kennedy, and J Hughes. 1992. Stress induced modulation of the immune response to recombinant hepatitits B vaccine. Psychosom Med 54:22-29.
Goldberg, E et al. 1985. Depressive symptoms, social networks and social support of elderly women. American Journal of Epidemiology :448-456.
Goldberger, L and S Breznitz. 1982. Handbook of Stress. New York: Free Press.
Goldstein, I, LD Jamner, and D Shapiro. 1992. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in healthy male paramedics during a work day and a non-work day. Health Psychol 11:48-54.
Golemblewski, RT. 1982. Organizational development (OD) interventions: Changing interaction, structures, and policies. In Job Stress and Burnout Research, Theory, and Intervention Perspectives, edited by WE Paine. Beverly Hills:Sage Publications.
Goleman, D. 1995. Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Goodrich, R. 1986. The perceived office: The office environment as experienced by its users. In Behavioral Issues in Office Design, edited by JD Wineman. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Gorman, DM. 1994. Alcohol misuse and the predisposing environment. British Medical Bulletin :36-49.
Gottlieb, BH. 1983. Social Support Strategies. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Gough, H and A Heilbrun. 1965. The Adjective Check List Manual. Palo Alto, Calif: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Gowler, D and K Legge. 1975. Stress and external relationships: The ‘hidden’ contract. In Managerial Stress, edited by D Gowler and K Legge. London: Gower.
Grandjean, E. 1968. Fatigue: Its physiological and psychological significance. Ergonomics 11(5):427-436.
—. 1986. Fitting the Task to the Man: An Ergonomic Approach. : Taylor and Francis.
—. 1987. Ergonomics in Computerized Offices. London: Taylor & Francis.
Greenglass, ER. 1993. The contribution of social support to coping strategies. Appl Psychol Intern Rev 42:323-340.
Greenhalgh, L and Z Rosenblatt. 1984. Job insecurity: Toward conceptual clarity. Acad Manage Rev (July):438-448.
Guendelman, S and MJ Silberg. 1993. The health consequences of maquiladora work: Women on the US-Mexican border. Am J Public Health 83:37-44.
Guidotti, TL. 1992. Human factors in firefighting: Ergonomic-, cardiopulmonary-, and psychogenic stress- related issues. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 64:1-12.
Gutek, B. 1985. Sex and the Workplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Gutierres, SE, D Saenz, and BL Green. 1994. Job stress and health outcomes among Anglo and Hispanic employees: A test of the person-environment fit model. In Job Stress in a Changing Workforce, edited by GP Keita and JJ Hurrell. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Hackman, JR. 1992. Group influences on individuals in organizations. In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, edited by MD Dunnette and LM Hough. Palo Alto, Calif: Consulting Psychologists’ Press.
Hackman, JR and EE Lawler. 1971. Employee reactions to job characteristics. J Appl Psychol 55:259-286.
Hackman, JR and GR Oldham. 1975. The job diagnostic survey. J Appl Psychol 60:159-170.
—. 1980. Work Redesign. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley.
Hales, TR, SL Sauter, MR Peterson, LJ Fine, V Putz-Anderson, LR Schleifer, TT Ochs, and BP Bernard. 1994. Musculoskeletal disorders among visual display terminal users in a telecommunication company. Ergonomics 37(10):1603-1621.
Hahn, ME. 1966. California Life Goals Evaluation Schedule. Palo Alto, CA: Western Psychological Services.
Hall, DT. 1990. Telecommuting and the Management of Work-Home Boundaries. Working Paper No. 90-05. Boston: Boston Univ. School of Management.
Hall, E. 1991. Gender, work control and stress: A theoretical discussion and an empirical test. In The Psychosocial Work Environment: Work Organization; Democratization and Health, edited by JV Johnson and G Johansson. Amityville, NY: Baywook.
—. 1992. Double exposure: The combined impact of the home and work environments on psychosomatic strain in Swedish men and women. Int J Health Serv 22:239-260.
Hall, RB. 1969. Intraorganizational structural variation: Application of the bureaucratic model. In Readings in Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, edited by LL Cummings and WEJ Scott. Homewood, Il:Richard D. Irwin, Inc. and the Dorsey Press.
Hamilton, LV, CL Broman, WS Hoffman, and D Brenner. 1990. Hard times and vulnerable people: Initial effects of plant closing on autoworkers’ mental health. J Health Soc Behav 31:123-140.
Harford, TC, DA Parker, BF Grant, and DA Dawson. 1992. Alcohol use and dependence among employed men and women in the United States in 1988. Alcohol, Clin Exp Res 16:146-148.
Harrison, RV. 1978. Person-environment fit and job stress. In Stress At Work, edited by CL Cooper and R Payne. New York: Wiley.
Hedge, A. 1986. Open vs. enclosed workspaces: The impact of design on employees’ reactions to their offices. In Behavioral Issues in Office Design, edited by JD Wineman. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
—. 1991. Design innovations in office environments. In Design Intervention: Toward a More Humane Architecture, edited by WFE Presiser, JC Vischer, and ET White. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Heilpern, J. 1989. Are American companies ‘hostile’ to quality improvement? Quality Exec (November).
Henderson, S, P Duncan-Jones, and G Byrne. 1980. Measuring social relationships. The interview schedule for social interaction. Psychol Med 10:723-734.
Henry, JP and PM Stephens. 1977. Stress, Health, and the Social Environment. A Sociobiologic Approach to Medicine. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Herzberg, F, B Mausner, and BB Snyderman. 1959. The Motivation to Work. New York: Wiley.
Hill, S. 1991. Why quality circles failed but total quality management might succeed. Br J Ind Relat (4 December):551-568.
Hirsh, BJ. 1980. Natural support systems and coping with major life changes. Am J Comm Psych 8:159-171.
Hirsch, PM. 1987. Pack Your Own Parachute. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley.
Hirschhorn, L. 1991. Stresses and patterns of adjustment in the postindustrial factory. In Work, Health and Productivity, edited by GM Green and F Baker. New York:Oxford University Press.
Hirshhorn, L. 1990. Leaders and followers in the postindustrial age: A psychodynamic view. J Appl Behav Sci 26:529-542.
—. 1984. Beyond Mechanization. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Holmes, TH and HR Richard. 1967. The social readjustment rating scale. J Psychosomat Res 11:213-218.
Holt, RR. 1992. Occupational stress. In Handbook of Stress, edited by L Goldberger and S Breznitz. New York: Free Press.
Holtmann, G, R Kreibel, and MV Singer. 1990. Mental stress and gastric acid secretion: Do personality traits influence the response? Digest Dis Sci 35:998-1007.
House, J. 1981. Work Stress and Social Support. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley.
Houtman, I and M Kompler. 1995. Risk factors and occupational risk groups for work stress in the Netherlands. In Organizational Risk Factors for Job Stress, edited by S Sauter and L Murphy. Washington:American psychological Association.
Houston, B and W Hodges. 1970. Situational denial and performance under stress. J Personal Soc Psychol 16:726-730.
Howard, R. 1990. Values make the company. Harvard Business Rev (September-October):133-144.
Hudiberg, JJ. 1991. Winning With Quality -The FPL Story. White Plains, NY: Quality Resources.
Hull, JG, RR Van Treuren, and S Virnelli. 1987. Hardiness and health: A critique and alternative approach. J Personal Soc Psychol 53:518-530.
Hurrell, JJ Jr, MA McLaney, and LR Murphy. 1990. The middle years: Career stage differences. Prev Hum Serv 8:179-203.
Hurrell, JJ Jr and LR Murphy. 1992. Locus of control, job demands, and worker health. In Individual Differences, Personality, and Stress, edited by CL Cooper and R Payne. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Hurrell JJ Jr and K Lindström. 1992. Comparison of job demands, control and psychosomatic complaints at different career stages of managers in Finland and the United States. Scand J Work Environ Health 18 Suppl. 2:11-13.
Ihman, A and G Bohlin. 1989. The role of controllability in cardiovascular activation and cardiovascular disease: Help or hindrance? In Stress, Personal Control and Health, edited by A Steptoe and A Appels. Chichester: Wiley.
Ilgen, DR. 1990. Health issues at work. American Psychologist 45:273-283.
Imai, M. 1986. Kaizen: The Key to Japan’s Competitive Success. New York: McGraw-Hill.
International Labour Organization (ILO). 1975. Making Work More Human. Report of the Director General to the International Labour Conference. Geneva: ILO.
—. 1986. Introduction to Work Study. Geneva: ILO.
Ishikawa, K. 1985. What Is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Israel, BA and TC Antonucci. 1987. Social network characteristics and psychological well-being: A replication and extension. Health Educ Q 14(4):461-481.
Jackson, DN. 1974. Personality Research Form Manual. New York: Research Psychologists Press.
Jackson, SE and RS Schuler. 1985. A meta-analysis and conceptual critique of research on role ambiguity and role conflict in work settings. Organ Behav Hum Decision Proc 36:16-78.
James, CR and CM Ames. 1993. Recent developments in alcoholism: The workplace. Recent Develop Alcohol 11:123-146.
James, K. 1994. Social identity, work stress and minority worker’s health. In Job Stress in a Changing Workforce, edited by GP Keita and JJ Hurrell. Washington, DC: APA.
Jenkins, CD. 1979. The coronary-prone personality. In Psychological Aspects of Myocardial Infarction and Coronary Care, edited by WD Gentry and RB Williams. St.Louis: Mosby.
Jenkins, R and N Coney. 1992. Prevention of Mental Ill Health At Work. A Conference. London: HMSO.
Jennings, R, C Cox, and CL Cooper. 1994. Business Elites: The Psychology of Entrepreneurs and Intrapreneurs. London: Routledge.
Johansson, G and G Aronsson. 1984. Stress reactions in computerized administrative work. J Occup Behav 15:159-181.
Johnson, JV. 1986. The impact of workplace social support, job demands and work control upon cardiovascular disease in sweden. PhD Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University.
Johnson, JV and EM Hall. 1988. Job strain, workplace social support and cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional study of a random sample of Swedish working population. Am J Public Health 78:1336-1342.
—. 1994. Social support in the work environment and cardiovascular disease. In Social Support and Cardiovascular Disease, edited by S Shumaker and S Czajkowski. New York: Plenum Press.
Johnson, JV and G Johansson. 1991. The Psychosocial Work Environment: Work Organization, Democratization and Health. Amityville, NY: Baywood.
Johnson, JV, W Stewart, EM Hall, P Fredlund, and T Theorell. 1996. Long-term psychosocial work environment and cardiovascular mortality among Swedish men. Am J Public Health 86(3):324-331.
Juran, JM. 1988. Juran On Planning for Quality. New York: Free Press.
Justice, A. 1985. Review of the effects of stress on cancer in laboratory animals: The importance of time of stress application and type of tumor. Psychol Bull 98(1):108-138.
Kadushin, A. 1976. Men in a woman’s profession. Social Work 21:440-447.
Kagan, A and L Levi. 1971. Adaptation of the psychosocial environment to man’s abilities and needs. In Society, Stress and Disease, edited by L Levi. New York:Oxford University Press.
Kahn, RL. 1991. The forms of women’s work. In Women, Work and Health. Stress and Opportunities, edited by M Frankenhaeuser, U Lundberg, and MA Chesney. New York: Plenum.
Kahn, RL and P Byosiere. 1992. Stress in organizations. In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, edited by MD Dunnette and LM Hough. Palo Alto, CA:Consulting Psychology Press.
Kahn, RL, DM Wolfe, RP Quinn, JD Snoek, and RA Rosenthal. 1964. Organisational Stress: Studies in Role Conflict and Ambiguity. Chichester: Wiley.
Kaplan, GA et al. 1991. Psychosocial factors and the natural history of physical activity. Am J Prev Medicine 7:12-17.
Kaplan, R and S Kaplan. 1989. The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Karasek, RA. 1976. The impact of the work environment on life outside the job. Doctoral Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.
—. 1979. Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. Adm Sci Q 24:285-308.
—. 1985. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and User’s Guide. Lowell, Mass: JCQ Center, Department of Work Environment, Univ. of Massachusetts Lowell.
—. 1990. Lower health risk with increased job control among white collar workers. J Organ Behav 11:171-185.
Karasek, R and T Theorell. 1990. Healthy Work, Stress, Productivity and the Reconstruction of Working Life. New York: Basic Books.
Kasl, SV. 1989. An epidemiological perspective on the role of control in health. In Job Control and Worker Health, edited by SL Sauter, JJ Hurrell Jr, and CL Cooper. Chichester: Wiley.
Kauppinen-Toropainen, K and JE Gruber. 1993. Antecedants and outcomes of woman-unfriendly experiences: A study of Scandanavian, former Soviet and American women. Psychol Women Q 17(4):431-456.
Kawakami, N, T Haratani, T Hemmi, and S Araki. 1992. Prevalence and demographic correlates of alcohol-related problems in Japanese employees. Social Psych Psychiatric Epidemiol 27:198-202.
—. 1993. Relations of work stress to alcohol use and drinking problems in male and female employees of a computer factory in Japan. Environ Res 62:314-324.
Keita, GP and SL Sauter. 1992. Work and Well Being: An Agenda for the 1990s. Washington, DC: APA.
Kelly, M and CL Cooper. 1981. Stress among blue collar workers: A case study of the steel industry. Employee Relations 3:6-9.
Kerckhoff, A and K Back. 1968. The June Bug. New York: Appelton-Century Croft.
Kessler, RC, JS House, and JB Turner. 1987. Unemployment and health in a community sample. J Health Soc Behav 28:51-59.
Kessler, RC, JB Turner, and JS House. 1988. The effects of unemployment on health in a community survey: Main, modifying and mediating effects. J Soc Issues 44(4):69-86.
—. 1989. Unemployment, reemployment, and emotional functioning in a community sample. Am Soc Rev 54:648-657.
Kleiber, D and D Enzmann. 1990. Burnout: 15 Years of Research: An International Bibliography. Gottingen: Hogrefe.
Klitzman, S and JM Stellman. 1989. The impact of physical environment on the psychological well-being of office workers. Soc Sci Med 29:733-742.
Knauth, P and J Rutenfranz. 1976. Experimental shift work studies of permanent night, and rapidly rotating, shift systems. I. Circadian rhythm of body temperature and re-entrainment at shift change. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 37:125-137.
—. 1982. Development of criteria for the design of shiftwork systems. J Hum Ergol 11 Shiftwork: Its Practice and Improvement: 337-367.
Knauth, P, E Kiesswetter, W Ottmann, MJ Karvonen, and J Rutenfranz. 1983. Time-budget studies of policemen in weekly or swiftly rotating shift systems. Appl Ergon 14(4):247-252.
Kobasa, SC. 1979. Stressful life events, personality and health: An inquiry into hardiness. J Personal Soc Psychol 37:1-11.
—. 1982. The hardy personality: Toward a social psychology of stress and health. In Social Psychology of Health and Illness, edited by G Sanders and J Suls. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kobasa, SC, SR Maddi, and S Kahn. 1982. Hardines and health: A prospective study. J Personal Soc Psychol 42:168-177.
Kofoed, L, MJ Friedman, and P Peck. 1993. Alcoholism and drug abuse in patients with PTSD. Psychiatry 64:151-171.
Kogi, K. 1991. Job content and working time: The scope for joint change. Ergonomics 34(6):757-773.
Kohn, M and C Schooler. 1973. Occupational experience and psychological functioning: An assessment of reciprocal effects. Am Soc Rev 38:97-118.
Kohn, ML, A Naoi, V Schoenbach, C Schooler, et al. 1990. Position in the class structure and psychological functioning in the United States, Japan, and Poland. Am J Sociol 95(4):964-1008.
Kompier, M and L Levi. 1994. Stress At Work: Causes, Effects, and Prevention. A Guide for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises. Dublin: European Foundation.
Kornhauser, A. 1965. The Mental Health of the Industrial Worker. New York: Wiley.
Komitzer, M, F Kittel, M Dramaix, and G de Backer. 1982. Job stress and coronary heart disease. Adv Cardiol 19:56-61.
Koss, MP, LA Goodman, A Browne, LF Fitzgerald, GP Keita, and NF Russo. 1994. No Safe Haven. Washington, DC: APA Press.
Koulack, D and M Nesca. 1992. Sleep parameters of Type A and B scoring college students. Perceptual and Motor Skills 74:723-726.
Kozlowski, SWJ, GT Chao, EM Smith, and J Hedlund. 1993. Organizational downsizing: Strategies, interventions, and research implications. In International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, edited by CL Cooper and I Robertson. Chichester: Wiley.
Kristensen, TS. 1989. Cardiovascular diseases and the work environment. A critical review of the epidemiologic literature on nonchemical factors. Scand J Work Environ Health 15:165-179.
—. 1991. Sickness absence and work strain among Danish slaughterhouse workers. An analysis of absence from work regarded as coping behaviour. Social Science and Medicine 32:15-27.
—. 1995. The Demand-Control-Support model: Methodological challenges for future research. Stress Medicine 11:17-26.
Krueger, GP. 1989. Sustained work, fatigue, sleep loss and performance: A review of the issues. Work and Stress 3:129-141.
Kuhnert, KW. 1991. Job security, health, and the intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics of work. Group Organ Stud :178-192.
Kuhnert, KW, RR Sims, and MA Lahey. 1989. The relationship between job security and employee health. Group Organ Stud (August):399-410.
Kumar, D and DL Wingate. 1985. The irritable bowel syndrome. Lancet ii:973-977.
Lamb, ME, KJ Sternberg, CP Hwang, and AG Broberg. 1992. Child Care in Context: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Earlbaum.
Landsbergis, PA, PL Schnall, D Deitz, R Friedman, and T Pickering. 1992. The patterning of psychological attributes and distress by “job strain” and social support in a sample of working men. J Behav Med 15(4):379-405.
Landsbergis, PA, SJ Schurman, BA Israel, PL Schnall, MK Hugentobler, J Cahill, and D Baker. 1993. Job stress and heart disease: Evidence and strategies for prevention. New Solutions (Summer):42-58.
Larson, JRJ and C Callahan. 1990. Performance monitoring: How does it affect work productivity. J Appl Psychol 75:530-538.
Last, LR, RWE Peterson, J Rappaport, and CA Webb. 1995. Creating opportunities for displaced workers: Center for Commercial Competitiveness. In Employees, Careers, and Job Creation: Developing Growth-Oriented Human Resource Strategies and Programs, edited by M London. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Laviana, JE. 1985. Assessing the Impact of Plants in the Simulated Office Environment: A Human Factors Approach. Manhattan, Kans: Department of Horticulture, Kansas State Univ.
Lazarus, RS. 1966. Psychological Stress and Coping Process. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Lazarus, RS and S Folkman. 1984. Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York: Springer.
Lee, P. 1983. The Complete Guide to Job Sharing. New York: Walker & Co.
Leibson, B. 1990. Corporate child care: “Junior Execs” on the job. Faculty Design Manage :32-37.
Leigh, JP and HM Waldon. 1991. Unemployment and highway fatalities. J Health Policy 16:135-156.
Leino, PI and V Hänninen. 1995. Psychosocial factors at work in relation to back and limb disorders. Scand J Work Environ Health 21:134-142.
Levi, L. 1972. Stress and Distress in Response to Psychosocial Stimuli. New York: Pergamon Press.
—. 1981. Society, Stress and Disease. Vol. 4: Working Life. Oxford: Oxford Univ Press.
—. 1992. Psychosocial, occupational, environmental, and health concepts: Research results and applications. In Work and Well-Being: An Agenda for the 1990s, edited by GP Keita and SL Sauter. Washington, DC: APA.
Levi, L, M Frankenhaeuser, and B Gardell. 1986. The characteristics of the workplace and the nature of its social demands. In Occupational Stress and Performance At Work, edited by S Wolf and AJ Finestone. Littleton, Mass: PSG.
Levi, L and P Lunde-Jensen. 1996. Socio-Economic Costs of Work Stress in Two EU Member States. A Model for Assessing the Costs of Stressors At National Level. Dublin: European Foundation.
Levine, EL. 1983. Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Job Analysis. Tampa: Mariner.
Levinson, DJ. 1986. A conception of adult development. American Psychologist 41:3-13.
Levinson, H. 1978. The abrasive personality. Harvard Bus Rev 56:86-94.
Levy, BS and DH Wegman. 1988. Occupational Health: Recognizing and Preventing Work-Related Disease. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.
Lewin, K, R Lippitt, and RK White. 1939. Patterns of aggressive behaviour in experimentally created social climates. J Soc Psychol 10:271-299.
Lewis, S, DN Izraeli, and H Hootsmans. 1992. Dual-Earner Families: International Perspectives. London: Sage.
Liberatos, P, BG Link, and J Kelsey. 1988. The measurement of social class in epidemiology. Epidemiol Rev 10:87-121.
Liem, R and JH Liem. 1988. The psychological effects of unemployment on workers and their families. J Soc Issues 44:87-105.
Light, KC, JR Turner, and AL Hinderliter. 1992. Job strain and ambulatory work blood pressure in healthy young men and women. Hypertension 20:214-218.
Lim, SY. 1994. An integrated approach to upper extremity musculoskeletal discomfort in the office work environment: The role of psychosocial work factors, psychological stress, and ergonomic risk factors. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Lim, SY and P Carayon. 1994. Relationship between physical and psychosocial work factors and upper extremity symptoms in a group of office workers. Proceedings of the 12th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomic Association. 6:132-134.
Lindeman, E. 1944. Symptomatology and management of acute grief. American Journal of Psychiatry 101:141-148.
Lindenberg, CS, HK Reiskin, and SC Gendrop. 1994. The social system model of substance abuse among childbearing age women: A review of the literature. Journal of Drug Education 24:253-268.
Lindström, K and JJ Hurrell Jr. 1992. Coping with job stress by managers at different career stages in Finland and the United States. Scand J Work Environ Health 18 Suppl. 2:14-17.
Lindström, K, J Kaihilahti and I Torstila. 1988. Ikäkausittaiset Terveystarkastukset Ja Työn Muutos Vakuutus- Ja Pankkialalla (in Finnish With English Summary). Espoo: The Finnish Work Environment Fund.
Link, B et al. 1986. Socio-economic status and schizophrenia: Noisome occupational characteristics as a risk factor. Am Soc Rev 51:242-258.
—. 1993. Socioeconomic status and depression: The role of occupations involving direction, control and planning. Am J Sociol 6:1351-1387.
Locke, EA and DM Schweiger. 1979. Participation in decision-making: One more look. Res Organ Behav 1:265-339.
London, M. 1995. Employees, Careers, and Job Creation: Developing Growth-Oriented Human Resource Strategies and Programs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Louis, MR. l980. Surprise and sense-making: What newcomers experience in entering unfamiliar organizational settings. Adm Sci Q 25:226-251.
Lowe, GS and HC Northcott. 1988. The impact of working conditions, social roles, and personal characteristics on gender differences in distress. Work Occup 15:55-77.
Lundberg, O. 1991. Causal explanations for class inequality in health-an empirical analysis. Soc Sci Med 32:385-393.
Lundberg, U, M Granqvist, T Hansson, M Magnusson, and L Wallin. 1989. Psychological and phsiological stress responses during repetitive work at an assembly line. Work Stress 3:143-153.
Maher, EL. 1982. Anomic aspects of recovery from cancer. Social Science and Medicine 16:907-912.
MacKinnon, CA. 1978. Sexual Harassment of Working Women: A Case of Sex Discrimination. New Haven, Conn: Yale Univ. Press.
Maddi, SR, SC Kobasa, and MC Hoover. 1979. An alienation test. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 19:73-76.
Maddi, SR and SC Kobasa. 1984. The Hardy Executive: Health Under Stress. Homewood, Il: Dow-Jones Irwin.
Maddi, SR. 1987. Hardiness training at Illinois Bell Telephone. In Health Promotion Evaluation, edited by JP Opatz. Stevens Point, Wisc: National Wellness Insitutue.
—. 1990. Issues and interventions in stress mastery. In Personality and Disease, edited by HS Friedman. New York: Wiley.
Mandell, W et al. 1992. Alcoholism and occupations: A review and analysis of 104 occupations. Alcohol, Clin Exp Res 16:734-746.
Mangione, TW and RP Quinn. 1975. Job satisfaction, counterproductive behavior, and drug use at work. Journal of Applied Psychology 60:114-116.
Mann, N. 1989. The Keys to Excellence. The Story of Deming Philosophy. Los Angeles: Prestwick.
Mantell, M and S Albrecht. 1994. Ticking Bombs: Defusing Violence in the Workplace. New York: Irwin Professional.
Marans, RW and X Yan. 1989. Lighting quality and environmental satisfaction in open and enclosed offices. J Architect Plan Res 6:118-131.
Margolis, B, W Kroes, and R Quinn. 1974. Job stress and unlisted occupational hazard. J Occup Med 16:659-661.
Marino, KE and SE White. 1985. Departmental structure, locus of control, and job stress: The effect of a moderator. Journal of Applied Psychology 70:782-784.
Marmot, M. 1976. Acculturation and coronary heart disease in Japanese Americans. In The Contribution of the Social Environment to Host Resistance, edited by JP Cassel.
Marmot, M and T Theorell. 1988. Social class and cardiovascular disease: The contribution of work. Int J Health Serv 18:659-674.
Marshall, NL and RC Barnett. 1991. Race, class and multiple roles strains and gains among women employed in the service sector. Women Health 17:1-19.
Martin, DD and RL Shell. 1986. Management of Professionals. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Martin, EV. 1987. Worker stress: A practitioner’s perspective. In Stress Management in Work Setting, edited by LR Murphy and TF Schoenborn. Cincinnati, Ohio: NIOSH.
Maslach, C. 1993. Burnout: A multidimentional perspective. In Professional Burnout, edited by WB Schaufeli, C Maslach and T Marek. Washington, DC: Taylor and Francis.
Maslach, C and SE Jackson. 1981/1986. The Maslach Burnout Inventory. Palo Alto, Calif: Consulting Psychologists.
Maslow, AH. 1954. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper.
Matteson, MT and JM Ivancevich. 1987. Controlling Work Stress. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mattiason, I, F Lindgarden, JA Nilsson, and T Theorell. 1990. Threat of unemployment and cardiovascular risk factors: Longitudinal study of quality of sleep and serum cholesterol concentrations in men threatened with redundancy. British Medical Journal 301:461-466.
Mattis, MC. 1990. New forms of flexible work arrangements for managers and professionals: Myths and realities. Hum Resour Plan 13(2):133-146.
McGrath, A, N Reid, and J Boore. 1989. Occupational stress in nursing. Int J Nursing Stud 26(4):343-358.
McGrath, JE. 1976. Stress and behavior in organizations. In Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Pyschology, edited by MD Dunnette. Chicago: Rand McNally.
McKee, GH, SE Markham, and DK Scott. 1992. Job stress and employee withdrawal from work. In Stress & Well-Being At Work, edited by JC Quick, LR Murphy, and JJ Hurrel. Washington, D.C.: APA.
McLaney, MA and JJ Hurrell Jr. 1988. Control, stress and job satisfaction. Work Stress 2:217-224.
McLean, LA. 1979. Work Stress. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Meisner, M. 1971. The long arm of the job. Industrial Relations :239-260.
Meyer, BD. 1995. Lessons from the US unemployment insurance experiments. J Econ Lit 33:91-131.
Meyerson, D. 1990. Uncovering socially undesirable emotions: Experience of ambiguity in organizations. Am Behav Sci 33:296-307.
Michaels, D and SR Zoloth. 1991. Mortality among urban bus drivers. Int J Epidemiol 20(2):399-404.
Michelson, W. 1985. From Sun to Sun: Maternal Obligations and Community Structure in the Lives of Employed Women and Their Families. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld.
Miller, KI and PR Monge. 1986. Participation, satisfaction, and productivity: A meta-analytic review. Acad Manage J 29:727-753.
Miller, LS and S Kelman. 1992. Estimates of the loss of individual productivity from alcohol and drug abuse and from mental illness. In Economics and Mental Health, edited by RG Frank and MG Manning. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.
Miller, S. 1979. Controllability and human stress: Method, evidence and theory. Behav Res Ther 17:287-304.
Ministry of Labour. 1987. The Swedish Work Environment Act (With Amendments) and the Swedish Work Environment Ordinance (With Amendments). Stockholm: Ministry of Labour.
Mino, Y, T Tsuda, A Babazona, H Aoyama, S Inoue, H Sato, and H Ohara. 1993. Depressive states in workers using computers. Environmental Research 63(1):54-59.
Misumi, J. 1985. The Behavioural Science of Leadership Concept: Third Leadership Symposium. Carbondale, Ill: Souther Illinois Univ.
Moleski, WH and JT Lang. 1986. Organizational goals and human needs in office planning. In Behavioral Issues in Office Design, edited by J Wineman. New York: Van Nostrand Rinehold.
Monk, TH and S Folkard. 1992. Making Shift Work Tolerable. London: Taylor & Francis.
Monk, T and D Tepas. 1985. Shift work. In Job Stress and Blue Collar Work, edited by C Cooper and MJ Smith. London: John Wiley & Sons.
Moon, S and SL Sauter. 1996. Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Disorders in Office Work. : Taylor and Francis,Ltd.
Moos, RH. 1986. Work as a human context. In Psychology and Work: Productivity, Change, and Employment, edited by MS Pallak and R Perloff. Washington, DC: APA.
Moos, R and A Billings. 1982. Conceptualizing and measuring coping resources and process. In Handbook of Stress: Theoretical and Clinical Aspects, edited by L Goldberger and S Breznitz. New York: Free Press.
Morrison, EW. l993. Longitudinal study of the effects of information seeking on newcomer socialization. J Appl Psychol 78:173-183.
Morrow, PC and JC McElroy. 1987. Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages. J Vocationl Behav 30:330-346.
Mossholder, KW, AG Bedeian, and AA Armenakis. 1981. Role perceptions, satisfaction, and perfor-mance: Moderating effects of self-esteem and orga-nizational level. Organ Behav Hum Perform 28:224-234.
—. 1982. Group process-work outcome relationships: A note on the moderating impact of self-esteem. Acad Manage J 25:575-585.
Muntaner, C and P O’Campo. 1993. A critical appraisal of the Demand/Control model of the psychosocial work environment: Epistemological, social, behavioral and class considerations. Soc Sci Med 36:1509-1517.
Muntaner, C, A Tien, WW Eaton, and R Garrison. 1991. Occupational characteristics and the occurence of psychotic disorders. Social Psych Psychiatric Epidemiol 26:273-280.
Muntaner, C et al. 1993. Dimensions of the psychosocial work environment in five US metropolitan areas. Work Stress 7:351-363.
Muntaner, C, P Wolyniec, J McGrath, and A Palver. 1993. Work environment and schizophrenia: An extension of the arousal hypothesis to occupational self-selection. Social Psych Psychiatric Epidemiol 28:231-238.
—. 1994. Psychotic inpatients’ social class and their first admission to state or private psychiatric hospitals in Baltimore. Am J Public Health 84:287-289.
Muntaner, C, JC Anthony, RM Crum, and WW Eaton. 1995. Psychosocial dimensions of work and the risk of drug dependence among adults. Am J Epidemiol 142(2):183-190.
Murphy, LR. 1988. Workplace interventions for stress reduction and prevention. In Causes, Coping and Consequences of Stress At Work, edited by CL Cooper and R Payne. New York: Wiley.
Murrell, KFH. 1965. A classification of pacing. Int J Prod Res 4:69-74.
National Council on Compensation Insurance. 1985. Emotional Stress in the Workplace. New Legal Rights in the Eighties. New York: National Council on Compensation Insurance.
Nehling, A and G Debry. 1994. Caffeine and sport activity: A review. International Journal of Sports Medicine 15:215-223.
Nelson, DL. l987. Organizational socialization: A stress perspective. J Occup Behav 8:3ll-324.
Nelson, DL and JC Quick. 1991. Social support and newcomer adjustment in organization: Attachment theory at work? J Organ Behav 12:543-554.
Nelson, DL and CD Sutton. 1991. The relationship between newcomer expectations of job stressors and adjustment to the new job. Work Stress 5:241-251.
Newman, JE and TA Beehr. 1979. Personal and organizational strategies for handling job stress: A review of research and opinion. Personnel Psychology 32:1-43.
Niaura, R, CM Stoney, and PN Herbst. 1992. Biol Psychol 34:1-43.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 1988. Prevention of Work-Related Psychological Disorders in Proposed National Strategies for the Prevention of Leading Work-Related Diseases and Injuries.: NIOSH.
North, FM, SL Syme, A Feeney, M Shipley, and M Marmot. 1996. Psychosocial work environment and sickness absence among British civil servants: The Whitehall II study. Am J Public Health 86(3):332.
Northwestern National Life. 1991. Employee burnout: America’s newest epidemic. Minneapolis, Mn. Northern National Life.
Nuckolls, KB et al. 1972. Psychosocial assets, life crisis and the prognosis of pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology 95:431-441.
O’Donnell, MP and JS Harris. 1994. Health Promotion in the Workplace. New York: Delmar.
Oetting, ER, RW Edwards, and F Beauvais. 1988. Drugs and native-American youth. Drugs and Society 3:1-34.
Öhman, A and G Bohlin. 1989. The role of controllability in cardiovascular activation and cardiovascular disease: Help or hindrance? In Stress, Personal Control and Health, edited by A Steptoe and A Appels. Chichester: Wiley.
Ojesjo, L. 1980. The relationship to alcoholism of occupation, class and employment. J Occup Med 22:657-666.
Oldham, GR. 1988. Effects of change in workspace partitions and spatial density on employee reactions: A quasi-experiment. J Appl Psychol 73:253-258.
Oldham, GR and Y Fried. 1987. Employee reactions to workspace characteristics. J Appl Psychol 72:75-80.
Oldham, GR and NL Rotchford. 1983. Relationships between office characteristics and employee reactions: A study of the physical environment. Adm Sci Q 28:542-556.
Olff, M, JF Brosschot, RJ Benschop, RE Ballieux, GLR Godaert, CJ Heijnen, and H Ursin. 1995. Modulatory effects of defense and coping on stress-induced changes in endocrine and immune parameters. Int J Behav Med 2:85-103.
Olff, M, JF Brosschot, RJ Benchop, RE Ballieux, GLR Godaert, CJ Heijnen, and H Eursin. 1993. Defence and coping in relation to subjective health and immunology.
Olmedo, EL and DL Parron. 1981. Mental health of minority women: Some special issues. J Prof Psychol 12:103-111.
O’Reilly, CA and JA Chatman. 1991. People and organizational culture: A profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit. Acad Manage J 34:487-516.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 1995. OECD Economic Outlook 57. Paris: OECD.
Ornstein, S. 1990. Linking environmental and industrial/organizational psychology. In International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, edited by CL Cooper and IT Robertson. Chichester: Wiley.