Friday, 11 February 2011 20:25

Governmental Occupational Health Agencies in the United States

Written by
Rate this item
(0 votes)

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration(OSHA)

Purpose and organization

OSHA was created to encourage employers and workers to reduce workplace hazards and to implement effective safety and health programmes. This is accomplished by setting and enforcing standards, monitoring the performance of state OSHA programmes, requiring employers to maintain records of work-related injuries and illnesses, providing safety and health training for employers and employees and investigating complaints of workers who claim they have been discriminated against for reporting safety or health hazards.

OSHA is directed by an Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, who reports to the Secretary of Labor. The OSHA headquarters is in Washington, DC, with ten regional offices and about 85 area offices. About half of the states administer their own state safety and health programmes, with federal OSHA responsible for enforcement in states without approved state programmes. The Occupational Safety and Health Act also requires that each federal government agency maintain a safety and health programme consistent with OSHA standards.

Programme and services

Standards form the basis of OSHA’s enforcement programme, setting out the requirements employers must meet to be in compliance. Proposed standards are published in the Federal Register with opportunities for public comment and hearings. Final standards are also published in the Federal Register and may be challenged in a US Court of Appeals.

In areas where OSHA has not established a standard, employers are required to follow the Occupational Safety and Health Act’s general duty clause, which states that each employer shall furnish “a place of employment which is free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees”.

OSHA has the right to enter the workplace to determine whether an employer is in compliance with requirements of the Act. OSHA places highest priority on investigating imminent danger situations, catastrophes and fatal accidents, employee complaints and scheduled inspections in highly hazardous industries.

If the employer refuses entry, the inspector can be required to obtain a search warrant from a US district judge or US magistrate. Both worker and employer representatives have a right to accompany OSHA inspectors on their plant visits. The inspector issues citations and proposed penalties for any violations found during the inspection and sets a deadline for correcting them.

The employer may contest the citation to the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission, an independent body established to hear challenges to OSHA citations and proposed fines. The employer may also appeal an unfavourable Review Commission decision to a federal court.

Consultation assistance is available at no cost to employers who agree to correct any serious hazards identified by the consultant. Assistance can be given in developing safety and health programmes and training workers. This service, which is targeted toward smaller employers, is largely funded by OSHA and provided by state government agencies or universities.

OSHA has a voluntary protection programme (VPP), which exempts workplaces from scheduled inspections if they meet certain criteria and agree to develop their own comprehensive safety and health programmes. Such workplaces must have lower than average accident rates and written safety programmes, make injury and exposure records available to OSHA and notify workers about their rights.


In 1995, the OSHA budget was $312 million, with about 2,300 employees. These resources are intended to provide coverage for more than 90 million workers throughout the United States.

State OSHA Programmes

Purpose and organization

The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 gave state governments the option of regulating workplace safety and health.

States conduct their own programmes for setting and enforcing safety and health standards by submitting a state plan to OSHA for approval. The state plan details how the state proposes to set and enforce standards that are “at least as effective” as OSHA’s and to assume jurisdiction over state, city and other (non-federal) public employees whom OSHA itself does not otherwise cover. In these states, the federal government gives up direct regulatory responsibilities, and instead provides partial funding to the state programmes, and monitors the state activities for conformance with the national standards.

Programme and services

Approximately half of the states have chosen to administer their own programmes. Two other states, New York and Connecticut, have elected to keep the federal jurisdiction in their states, but to add a state workplace safety and health system that provides protection for public employees.

State-run OSHA programmes allow states to tailor resources and target regulatory efforts to match special needs in their states. For example, logging is done differently in the eastern and western United States. North Carolina, which runs its own OSHA programme, was able to target its logging regulations, outreach, training and enforcement programmes to address the safety and health needs of loggers in that state.

Washington State, which has a large agricultural economic base, developed agriculture safety requirements that exceed the mandated national minimums and translated safety information into Spanish to meet the needs of Spanish-speaking farm workers.

In addition to developing programmes that meet their special needs, states are able to develop programmes and enact regulations for which there might not be sufficient support at the federal level. California, Utah, Vermont and Washington have restrictions on workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke; Washington State and Oregon require that each employer develop worksite-specific injury and illness prevention plans; Utah’s standard for oil and gas drilling and the manufacture of explosives exceeds federal OSHA standards.

State programmes are permitted to conduct consultation programmes that provide free assistance to employers in identifying and correcting workplace hazards. These consultations, which are made only at the request of the employer, are kept separate from enforcement programmes.


In 1993, state-administered programmes had a total of about 1,170 enforcement personnel, according to the Occupational Safety and Health State Plan Association. In addition, they had about 300 safety and health consultants and nearly 60 training and education coordinators. The majority of these programmes are in state labour departments.

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA)

Purpose and organization

The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) sets and enforces standards to reduce injuries, illnesses and deaths in mines and mineral processing operations regardless of size, number of employees or method of extraction. MSHA is required to inspect every underground mine at least four times a year and every surface mine at least twice a year.

In addition to enforcement programmes, the Mine Safety and Health Act requires that the agency establish regulations on safety and health training for miners, upgrade and strengthen mine safety and health laws and encourage the participation of miners and their representatives in safety activities. MSHA also works with the mine operators to solve safety and health problems through education and training programmes and the development of engineering controls to reduce injuries.

Like OSHA, MSHA is directed by an Assistant Secretary of Labor. The coal mine safety and health activities are administered through ten district offices in the coal mining regions. The metal and non-metal mine safety and health activities are administered through six district offices in the mining areas of the country.

A number of staff offices that assist in administering the agency’s responsibilities are located at the headquarters in Arlington, Virginia. These include the Office of Standards, Regulations and Variances; the Office of Assessments; the Technical Support directorate; and the Office of Program Policy. In addition, the Educational Policy and Development Office oversees the agency’s training programme at the National Mine Health and Safety Academy in Beckley, West Virginia, which is the world’s largest institution devoted entirely to mine safety and health training.

Programme and services

Mining deaths and injuries have declined significantly during the last hundred years. From 1880 to 1910, thousands of coal miners were killed, with 3,242 dying in 1907 alone. Large numbers of miners were also killed in other sorts of mines. The average number of mining deaths has declined over the years to less than 100 per year today.

MSHA enforces the mine act provisions requiring mine operators to have an approved safety and health training plan which provides for 40 hours of basic training for new underground miners, 24 hours of training for new surface miners, 8 hours of annual refresher training for all miners and safety-related task training for miners assigned to new jobs. The National Mine Health and Safety Academy offers a wide variety of safety and health courses. MSHA provides special training programmes for managers and workers at small mining operations. MSHA training materials, including videotapes, films, publications and technical materials are available at the Academy and at district offices.


In 1995, MSHA had a budget of about $200 million and about 2,500 employees. These resources were responsible for ensuring the health and safety of about 113,000 coal miners and 197,000 miners in metal and non-metal mines.

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)

Purpose and organization

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the federal agency responsible for conducting research on occupational injuries and illnesses and transmitting recommended standards to OSHA. NIOSH funds education programmes for occupational safety and health professionals through Educational Resource Centres (ERCs) and training projects at universities throughout the United States. Under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, NIOSH also conducts research and health hazard evaluations, and recommends mine health standards to the Mine Safety and Health Administration.

The Director of NIOSH reports to the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention within the Department of Health and Human Services. The NIOSH headquarters is in Washington, DC, with administrative offices in Atlanta, Georgia, and laboratories in Cincinnati, Ohio, and Morgantown, West Virginia.

Programme and services

NIOSH research is conducted both in the field and in the laboratory. Surveillance programmes identify the occurrence of work-related injury and disease. These include targeted data collection directed toward specific conditions, such as high blood lead levels in adults or injuries among adolescent workers. NIOSH also links data collected by states and other federal agencies to make it increasingly practicable to obtain a national picture of the effects of occupational hazards.

Field research is conducted at workplaces throughout the United States. These studies make it possible to identify hazards, evaluate the extent of exposures and determine the effectiveness of preventive measures. The right of entry into the workplace is essential to the ability of the Institute to conduct this research. This field research results in articles in the scientific literature as well as recommendations for preventing hazards at specific worksites.

Working with state health departments, NIOSH investigates on-the-job fatalities from specific causes, including electrocutions, falls, machine-related incidents and confined space entry accidents. NIOSH has a special programme to assist small businesses by developing inexpensive and effective technologies to control hazardous exposures at the source.

NIOSH conducts laboratory research to study workplace hazards under controlled conditions. This research assists NIOSH in determining the causes and mechanisms of workplace illnesses and injuries, developing tools for measuring and monitoring exposures, and developing and evaluating control technology and personal protective equipment.

About 17% of the NIOSH budget is devoted to funding service activities. Many of these service activities are also research-based, such as the health hazard evaluation programme. NIOSH conducts hundreds of health hazard evaluations each year when requested by employers, workers or federal and state agencies. After evaluating the worksite, NIOSH provides workers and employers with recommendations to reduce exposures.

NIOSH also responds to requests for information through a toll-free telephone number. Through this number, callers can obtain occupational safety and health information, request a health hazard evaluation or obtain a NIOSH publication. The NIOSH Home Page on the World Wide Web is also a good source of information about NIOSH.

NIOSH maintains a number of databases, including NIOSHTIC, a bibliographic database of occupational safety and health literature, and the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS), which is a compendium of toxicological data extracted from the scientific literature which fulfils the NIOSH mandate to “list all known toxic substances and concentrations at which toxicity is known to occur”.

NIOSH also tests respirators and certifies that they meet established national standards. This assists employers and workers in choosing the most appropriate respirator for specific hazardous environments.

NIOSH funds programmes at universities throughout the United States to train occupational medicine physicians, occupational health nurses, industrial hygienists and safety professionals. NIOSH also funds programmes to introduce safety and health into business, engineering and vocational schools. These programmes, which are either multidisciplinary ERCs or single-discipline project training grants, have made a significant contribution to the development of occupational health as a discipline and to meeting the need for qualified safety and health professionals.


NIOSH had about 900 employees and a budget of $133 million in 1995. NIOSH is the only federal agency with statutory responsibility to conduct occupational safety and health research and professional training.

The Future of Occupational Safetyand Health Programmes

The future of these federal occupational safety and health programmes in the United States is very much in doubt in the anti-regulatory climate of the 1990s. There continue to be serious proposals from Congress that would drastically change how these programmes operate.

One proposal would require the regulatory agencies to focus more on education and consultation and less on standards setting and enforcement. Another would set up requirements for complex cost benefit analyses that must be conducted before standards could be established. NIOSH has been threatened with abolition or merger with OSHA. And all these agencies have been targeted for budget reductions.

If enacted, these proposals would greatly decrease the federal role in conducting research and in setting and enforcing uniform occupational safety and health standards throughout the United States.



Additional Info

Read 4973 times Last modified on Thursday, 16 June 2011 13:01

" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."


Part I. The Body
Part II. Health Care
First Aid & Emergency Medical Services
Health Protection & Promotion
Occupational Health Services
Part III. Management & Policy
Part IV. Tools and Approaches
Part V. Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
Part VI. General Hazards
Part VII. The Environment
Part VIII. Accidents and Safety Management
Part IX. Chemicals
Part X. Industries Based on Biological Resources
Part XI. Industries Based on Natural Resources
Part XII. Chemical Industries
Part XIII. Manufacturing Industries
Part XIV. Textile and Apparel Industries
Part XV. Transport Industries
Part XVI. Construction
Part XVII. Services and Trade
Part XVIII. Guides

Occupational Health Services References

Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics (AOEC). 1995. Membership Directory. Washington, DC: AOEC.

Basic law on labour protection. 1993. Rossijskaja Gazeta (Moscow), 1 September.

Bencko, V and G Ungváry. 1994. Risk assessment and environmental concerns of industrialization: A central European experience. In Occupational Health and National Development, edited by J Jeyaratnam and KS Chia. Singapore: World Science.

Bird, FE and GL Germain. 1990. Practical Loss Control Leadership. Georgia: Institute Publishing Division of the International Loss Control Institute.

Bunn, WB. 1985. Industrial Medical Surveillance Programmes. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control (CDC).

—. 1995. The scope of international occupational medical practice. Occup Med . In press.

Bureau of National Affairs (BNA). 1991. Workers’ Compensation Report. Vol. 2. Washington, DC: BNA.

—. 1994. Workers’ Compensation Report. Vol. 5. Washington, DC: BNA.
China Daily. 1994a. New sectors opened to lure foreign investment. 18 May.

—. 1994b. Foreign investors reap advantages of policy changes. 18 May.

Council of the European Communities (CEC). 1989. Council Directive On the Introduction of Measures to Encourage Improvements in the Safety and Health of Workers At Work. Brussels: CEC.

Constitution of the Russian Federation. 1993. Izvestija (Moscow), No. 215, 10 November.

Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. 1991a. The health sector: Issues and priorities. Human Resources Operations Division, Central and Eastern European Department. Europe, Middle East and North Africa Region, World Bank.

—. 1991b. Joint environmental study.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and Department of Justice. 1991. Americans with Disabilities Act Handbook. EEOC-BK-19, P.1. 1, 2, October.

European Commission (EC). 1994. Europe for Safety and Health At Work. Luxembourg: EC.

Felton, JS. 1976. 200 years of occupational medicine in the US. J Occup Med 18:800.

Goelzer, B. 1993. Guidelines on control of chemical and physical hazards in small industries. Working document for the Inter-Regional Task Group on health protection and health promotion of workers in small-scale enterprises, 1-3 November, Bangkok, Thailand. Bangkok: ILO.

Hasle, P, S Samathakorn, C Veeradejkriengkrai, C Chavalitnitikul, and J Takala. 1986. Survey of working conditions and environment in small-scale enterprises in Thailand, NICE project. Technical Report, No. 12. Bangkok: NICE/UNDP/ILO.

Hauss, F. 1992. Health promotion for the crafts. Dortmund: Forschung FB 656.

He, JS. 1993. Working report on national occupational health. Speech on the National Occupational Health Conference. Beijing, China: Ministry of Public Health (MOPH).

Health Standards Office.1993. Proceedings of National Diagnostic Criteria and Principles of Management of Occupational Diseases. Beijing, China: Chinese Standardization Press.

Huuskonen, M and K Rantala. 1985. Work Environment in Small Enterprises in 1981. Helsinki: Kansaneläkelaitos.

Improving working conditions and environment: An International Programme (PIACT). The evaluation of the International Programme for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment (PIACT). 1984. Report to the 70th session of the International Labour Conference. Geneva: ILO.

Institute of Medicine (IOM). 1993. Environmental Medicine and the Medical School Curriculum. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Institute of Occupational Health (IOH). 1979. Translation of the Occupational Health Care Act and the Council of the State Decree No. 1009, Finland. Finland: IOH.

Institute of Occupational Medicine.1987. Methods for Monitoring and Analysis of Chemical Hazards in Air of Workplace. Beijing, China: People’s Health Press.

International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH). 1992. International Code of Ethics for Occupational Health Professionals. Geneva: ICOH.

International Labour Organization (ILO). 1959. Occupational Health Services Recommendation, 1959 (No. 112). Geneva: ILO.

—. 1964. Employment Injury Benefits Convention, 1964 (No.121). Geneva: ILO.

—. 1981a. Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 1981 (No. 155). Geneva: ILO.

—. 1981b. Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation, 1981 (No. 164). Geneva: ILO.

—. 1984. Resolution Concerning Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment. Geneva: ILO.

—. 1985a. Occupational Health Services Convention, 1985 (No. 161). Geneva: ILO

—. 1985b. Occupational Health Services Recommendation, 1985 (No. 171). Geneva: ILO.

—. 1986. The Promotion of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. International Labour Conference, 72nd session. Report VI. Geneva: ILO.

International Social Security Association (ISSA). 1995. Prevention Concept “Safety Worldwide”. Geneva: ILO.

Jeyaratnam, J. 1992. Occupational health services and developing nations. In Occupational Health in Developing Countries, edited by J Jeyaratnam. Oxford: OUP.

—. and KS Chia (eds.). 1994. Occupational Health and National Development. Singapore: World Science.

Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health. 1950. Report of the First Meeting, 28 August-2 September 1950. Geneva: ILO.

—. 1992. Eleventh Session, Document No. GB.254/11/11. Geneva: ILO.

—. 1995a. Definition of Occupational Health. Geneva: ILO.

—. 1995b. Twelfth Session, Document No. GB.264/STM/11. Geneva: ILO.

Kalimo, E, A Karisto, T Klaukkla, R Lehtonen, K Nyman, and R Raitasalo. 1989. Occupational Health Services in Finland in the Mid-1980s. Helsinki: Kansaneläkelaitos.

Kogi, K, WO Phoon, and JE Thurman. 1988. Low Cost Ways of Improving Working Conditions: 100 Examples from Asia. Geneva: ILO.

Kroon, PJ and MA Overeynder. 1991. Occupational Health Services in Six Member States of the EC. Amsterdam: Studiecentrum Arbeid & Gezonheid, Univ. of Amsterdam.

Labour Code of the Russian Federation. 1993. Zakon, Suppl. to Izvestija (Moscow), June: 5-41.

McCunney, RJ. 1994. Occupational medical services. In A Practical Guide to Occupational and Environmental Medicine, edited by RJ McCunney. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

—. 1995. A Manager’s Guide to Occupational Health Services. Boston: OEM Press and American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic. 1992. The National Programme of Health Restoration and Promotion in the Czech Republic. Prague: National Centre for Health Promotion.

Ministry of Public Health (MOPH). 1957. Recommendation on Establishing and Staffing Medical and Health Institutions in Industrial Enterprises. Beijing, China: MOPH.

—. 1979. State Committee of Construction, State Planning Committee, State Economic Committee, Ministry of Labour: The Hygienic Standards for Design of Industrial Premises. Beijing, China: MOPH.

—. 1984. Administrative Rule of Occupational Disease Diagnosis. Document No. 16. Beijing, China: MOPH.

—. 1985. Methods of Airborne Dust Measurement in Workplace. Document No. GB5748-85. Beijing, China: MOPH.

—. 1987. Ministry of Public Health, Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Finance, All-China Federation of Trade Union: Administrative Rule of Occupational Disease List and Care of the Sufferers. Document No. l60. Beijing, China: MOPH.

—. 1991a. Administrative Rule of Health Inspection Statistics. Document No. 25. Beijing, China: MOPH.

—. 1991b. Guideline of Occupational Health Service and Inspection. Beijing, China: MOPH.

—. 1992. Proceedings of National Survey on Pneumoconioses. Beijing, China: Beijing Medical Univ Press.

—. 1994 Annual Statistic Reports of Health Inspection in 1988-1994. Beijing, China: Department of Health Inspection, MOPH.

Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. 1994. Measures to Reduce Sick Leave and Improve Labour Conditions. Den Haag, The Netherlands: Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment.

National Centre of Occupational Health Reporting (NCOHR). 1994. Annual Reports of Occupational Health Situation in 1987-1994. Beijing, China: NCOHR.

National Health Systems. 1992. Market and Feasibility Study. Oak Brook, Ill: National Health Systems.

National Statistics Bureau. 1993. National Statistics Yearbook of the People’s Republic of China. Beijing, China: National Statistic Bureau.

Neal, AC and FB Wright. 1992. The European Communities’ Health and Safety Legislation. London: Chapman & Hall.

Newkirk, WL. 1993. Occupational Health Services. Chicago: American Hospital Publishing.

Niemi, J and V Notkola. 1991. Occupational health and safety in small enterprises: Attitudes, knowledge and behaviour of the entrepreneurs. Työ ja ihminen 5:345-360.

Niemi, J, J Heikkonen, V Notkola, and K Husman. 1991. An intervention programme to promote improvements of the work environment in small enterprises: Functional adequacy and effectiveness of the intervention model. Työ ja ihminen 5:361-379.

Paoli, P. First European Survey On the Work Environment, 1991-1992. Dublin: European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions.

Pelclová, D, CH Weinstein, and J Vejlupková. 1994. Occupational Health in the Czech Republic: Old and New Solutions.

Pokrovsky, VI. 1993. The environment, occupational conditions and their effect on the health of the population of Russia. Presented at International Conference Human Health and the Environment in Eastern and Central Europe, April 1993, Prague.

Rantanen, J. 1989. Guidelines on organization and operation of occupation health services. Paper presented at ILO Asian subregional seminar on the Organization of Occupational Health Services, 2-5 May, Manila.

—. 1990. Occupational Health Services. European Series, No. 26. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Publications

—. 1991. Guidelines on the organization and operation of occupational health services in the light of the ILO Occupational Health Services Convention No. 161 and Recommendation No. 171. Paper presented at the African sub-regional workshop on occupational health services, 23-26 April, Mombasa.

—. 1992. How to organize plant-level collaboration for workplace actions. Afr Newslttr Occup Health Safety 2 Suppl. 2:80-87.

—. 1994. Health Protection and Health Promotion in Small-Scale Enterprises. Helsinki: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.

—, S Lehtinen, and M Mikheev. 1994. Health Promotion and Health Protection in Small-Scale Enterprises. Geneva: WHO.

—,—, R Kalimo, H Nordman, E Vainio, and Viikari-Juntura. 1994. New epidemics in occupational health. People and Work. Research reports No. l. Helsinki: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.

Resnick, R. 1992. Managed care comes to Workers’ Compensation. Bus Health (September):34.

Reverente, BR. 1992. Occupational health services for small-scale industries. In Occupational Health in Developing Countries, edited by J Jeyaratnam. Oxford: OUP.

Rosenstock, L, W Daniell, and S Barnhart. 1992. The 10-year experience of an academically affiliated occupational and environmental medicine clinic. Western J Med 157:425-429.

—. and N Heyer. 1982. Emergence of occupational medical services outside the workplace. Am J Ind Med 3:217-223.

Statistical Abstract of the United States. 1994. 114th edition:438.

Tweed, V. 1994. Moving toward 24-hour care. Bus Health (September):55.

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). 1992. Rio De Janeiro.

Urban, P, L Hamsová, and R. Nemecek. 1993. Overview of Occupational Diseases Acknowledged in the Czech Republic in the Year 1992. Prague: National Institute of Public Health.

US Department of Labor. 1995. Employment and Earnings. 42(1):214.

World Health Organization (WHO). 1981. Global Strategy for Health for All by Year 2000.
Health for All, No. 3. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1982. Evaluation of Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene Services. Report of the Working Group. EURO Reports and Studies No. 56. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

—. 1987. Eighth General Programme of Work Covering the Period 1990-1995. Health for All, No.10. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1989a. Consultation On Occupational Health Services, Helsinki, 22-24 May 1989. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1989b. Final Report of Consultation On Occupational Health Services, Helsinki 22-24 May 1989. Publication No. ICP/OCH 134. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

—. 1989c. Report of the WHO Planning Meeting On the Development of Supporting Model Legislation for Primary Health Care in the Workplace. 7 October 1989, Helsinki, Finland. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1990. Occupational Health Services. Country reports. EUR/HFA target 25. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

—. 1992. Our Planet: Our Health. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1993. WHO Global Strategy for Health and Environment. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1995a. Concern for Europe’s tomorrow. Chap. 15 in Occupational Health. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

—. 1995b. Global Strategy On Occupational Health for All. The Way to Health At Work: Recommendation of the Second Meeting of the WHO Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health, 11-14 October 1994 Beijing, China. Geneva: WHO.

—. 1995c. Reviewing the Health-For-All Strategy. Geneva: WHO.

World Summit for Social Development. 1995. Declaration and Programme of Action. Copenhagen: World Summit for Social Development.

Zaldman, B. 1990. Industrial strength medicine. J Worker Comp :21.
Zhu, G. 1990. Historical Experiences of Preventive Medical Practice in New China. Beijing, China: People’s Health Press.