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The material presented here is based on an exhaustive review, revision and expansion of the data on metals found in the 3rd edition of the Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Members of the Scientific Committee on the Toxicology of Metals of the International Commission on Occupational Health carried out much of the review. They are listed below, along with other reviewers and authors.

The reviewers are:

L. Alessio

Antero Aitio

P. Aspostoli

M. Berlin

Tom W. Clarkson

C-G. Elinder

Lars Friberg

Byung-Kook Lee

N. Karle Mottet

D.J. Nager

Kogi Nogawa

Tor Norseth

C.N. Ong

Kensaborv Tsuchiva

Nies Tsukuab.

The 4th edition contributors are:

Gunnar Nordberg

Sverre Langård.

F. William Sunderman, Jr.

Jeanne Mager Stellman

Debra Osinsky

Pia Markkanen

Bertram D. Dinman

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR).

Revisions are based on the contributions of the following 3rd edition authors:
A. Berlin, M. Berlin, P.L. Bidstrup, H.L. Boiteau, A.G. Cumpston, B.D. Dinman, A.T. Doig,
J.L. Egorov, C-G. Elinder, H.B. Elkins, I.D. Gadaskina, J. Glrmme, J.R. Glover,
G.A. Gudzovskij, S. Horiguchi, D. Hunter, Lars Järup, T. Karimuddin, R. Kehoe, R.K. Kye,
Robert R. Lauwerys, S. Lee, C. Marti-Feced, Ernest Mastromatteo, O. Ja Mogilevskaja,
L. Parmeggiani, N. Perales y Herrero, L. Pilat, T.A. Roscina, M. Saric, Herbert E. Stokinger,
H.I. Scheinberg, P. Schuler, H.J. Symanski, R.G. Thomas, D.C. Trainor, Floyd A. van Atta,
R. Wagg, Mitchell R. Zavon and R.L. Zielhuis.



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" DISCLAIMER: The ILO does not take responsibility for content presented on this web portal that is presented in any language other than English, which is the language used for the initial production and peer-review of original content. Certain statistics have not been updated since the production of the 4th edition of the Encyclopaedia (1998)."


Metals: Chemical Properties and Toxicity References

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1995. Case Studies in Environmental Medicine: Lead Toxicity. Atlanta: ATSDR.

Brief, RS, JW Blanchard, RA Scala, and JH Blacker. 1971. Metal carbonyls in the petroleum industry. Arch Environ Health 23:373–384.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1990. Chromium, Nickel and Welding. Lyon: IARC.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 1994. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-116. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH.

Rendall, REG, JI Phillips and KA Renton. 1994. Death following exposure to fine particulate nickel from a metal arc process. Ann Occup Hyg 38:921–930.

Sunderman, FW, Jr., and A Oskarsson,. 1991. Nickel. In Metals and their compounds in the environment, edited by E Merian, Weinheim, Germany: VCH Verlag.

Sunderman, FW, Jr., A Aitio, LO Morgan, and T Norseth. 1986. Biological monitoring of nickel. Tox Ind Health 2:17–78.

United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. 1995. Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, 9th edition. New York: United Nations.